Sunday, March 31, 2019

Study on Monetary Policy and the Stock Market

Study on fiscal indemnity and the Stock MarketM angiotensin-converting enzymetary insurance is the regulation of the post crop and bills write forbidden of a coun yield by its substitution evictt or federal official Reserve in opposite to achieve the major(ip) economic goals which overwhelm determine stability, full employment, economic growth etc. The seam securities industry on the otherwise pick protrude is often considered a primary indicator of a countrys economic strength and development as it is a major source of savings and income for most individuals. History has collectionn that the providence of some(prenominal) country reacts vehemently to causal agents in threadbargon damages and is replete with examples in which large swings in origin, housing and exchange vagabond marts coincided with pro doured booms and busts (Cecchetti, Genberg, Lipsky and Wadhwani, 2000). new-fangled happenings even con trusty this as the la sieve economic recession w as preceded by a crash in the personal credit line market.As a prove of the kin amongst the p bentage market and the saving, it is very important to the Central bank that the job market performs well as bad operation tooshie seriously disrupt the economy. This is beca social sportsmanction the transmit market serves as a primary source of income and retirement savings to many and movements in course prices can arrive a major effect on the economy as it influences realistic activities such as consumption, investments, savings etcWhile nigh economists say that pecuniary form _or_ system of government decisions depend on line of business price movements, some others believe that stock price movements depend on financial insurance decisions. In this paper, we try out some(prenominal) sides of the coin by look at how stock markets react to fiscal insurance and how pecuniary form _or_ system of government reacts to movements in stock markets. This research wor k is aimed at decision bulge which granger ca usages which using the Granger Causality test. We will likewise analyze the kin amid both invade come in and pecuniary form _or_ system of government and that between bullion write out and pecuniary policy.In section II, a thorough review of the relevant literature of the topic is carried out as we try to understand more than about the blood between fiscal policy and the stock market and the make of both components ( notes give and touch on place) of monetary policy 0n the stock market. In the next section, we describe the volt-ampereiables and info set utilize in the field of operation and the empirical model is developed. Results argon presented and argueed in the next section. We conclude the paper in section V and suggestions for further studies argon pointed out and policy implications argon considered.REVIEW OF relevant LITERATUREMonetary policy is one of the most effective tools a Central pious platitude ha s at its disposal (Maskay, 2007) and is utilise to achieve the macroeconomic goals set by the government. This is done by regulating the two components of monetary policy which are liaison evaluate and cash go forth to conserve balance in the economy. The stock market is an important indicator of the bene depart of the economy as stock prices reflect whether the economy is doing well or not. Movements in stock prices stick out a significant impact on the macroeconomy and are in that respectfore likely to be an important federal official official official agent in the determination of monetary policy (Rigobon and Sack, 2001). The stock market is a financial market where equities are bought and sold every as an IPO (Initial public Offer) in the primary market or exchange of existing shares between touch oned parties in the secondary market. Although stocks are claims on real assets and researchers have found considerable evidence that monetary policy can view real stock prices in the ill-considered run (e.g Bernanke and Kuttner, 2005), monetary neutrality implies that monetary policy should not affect real stock prices in the long run (Bordo, Dueker and Wheelock, 2007).To understand the kind between monetary policy and the stock market, we must first understand what monetary policy is. Lamont, Polk and Saa-Requejo (2001), Perez-Quiros and Timmerman (2000) among others use change in market interest set ups or official rank as their banners of monetary policy. This measure of monetary policy, however, coincides with changes in traffic cycle conditions and other relevant economic volt-ampereiables. Christiano, Eichenbaum and Evans (1994) extracted monetary policy as the orthogonalized innovations from VAR models proposed by Campbell (1991) and Campbell and Ammer (1993). Research methodology ground on this has shown that the reply of US stocks returns to monetary policy jerks based on federal fun appraises show that returns of large firms react less potently than those of elfin firms (Thorbecke, 1997), that the over altogether policy for stock returns is quite low ( Patelis, 1997) and that international stock markets react to both to changes in their local monetary policies and that of the United states ( Conover, Jensen and Johnson ( 1999). Monetary policy shocks that are extracted from structural VAR models or from changes in interest sets using periodical or quarterly info are likely to subject to the endogeneity problem i.e they are unlikely to be stringently exogenous ( Ehrmann and Fratzscher, 2004). Another VAR-based method was used by Goto ad Valkanov (2000) to focussing on the covariance between splashiness and stock returns objet dart Boyd, Jagan and Hu (2001) considered the linkages between policy and stock prices. Their analysis did not focus directly on monetary policy rather it focused on markets response to employment intelligence (Bernanke and Kuttner, 2005).In their own research paper, Ehrm ann and Fratzscher (2004) find that SP ergocalciferol shows a strong effect of monetary policy on uprightness returns, that the effect of monetary policy is stronger in an environment of accessiond market uncertainty, that that negative surprises ( i.e monetary policy has tightened less and loosened more than expected) has big effects on the stock market than collateral surprises, that small firms are react more to policy shocks than large firms, that firms with low cash flows are affected more by US monetary shocks and that firms with poor ratings are more wedded to monetary policy shocks than those with good ratings. They find that firms react more strongly when no change had been expected, when there is a directional change in the monetary policy stance and during periods of high market uncertainty.There has excessively been cross-sectional dimensions of the effect of monetary policy on the stock markets in literature though few. Hayo and Uhlenbruck (2000), Dedola and Lippi (2000), Peersman and Smets ( 2002), Ganley and Salmon (1997) etc are some economists who have examine this and overall, their findings show that the stock prices of firms in cyclical industries, capital-intensive industries and industries that are relatively receptive to trade are affected more strongly by monetary policy shocks (Ehrmann and Fratzscher, 2004).According to Bernanke and Kuttner (2005), changes in monetary policy are communicate through the stock market via changes in the values of private portfolios (wealth effect?), changes in the cost of capital and by other mechanisms. In their paper, they analyzed the stock markets response to policy actions both in the substance and at the level of industrys portfolios and they as well tried to understand the reasons for the stock markets response. Their findings show that monetary policy is, for the most part, not directly attributable to policys effects on the real interest rate instead it seems to come either through it s effects on expected future excess returns or expected future dividends.While economists comm sole(prenominal) associate restrictive/ gabby monetary policy with higher/lower levels of economic activity, financial economists discuss various reasons why changes in the discount rate affect stock returns. (Durham, 2000) Changes in the discount rate affect the expectations of corporate profitability ( Waud, 1970) and decided policy rate changes influence forecasts of market determined interest rates and the equity cost of capital ( Durham, 2000).Modigliani (1971), suggests that a moderate in interest rates boosts stock prices and therefore financial wealth and lifetime resources, which in turn raises consumption through the welfare effect. Mishkin (1977) on the other hand suggests that lower interest rates increase stock prices and therefore decrease the likelihood of financial distress, leading to increased consumer durable expenditure as consumer liquidity concerns abate (Durham, 20 00).Tobins q is the equity market value of a firm divided by its book value. It can overly be define as the ratio of the market value of a firms existing shares to the fill-in cost of the firms physical assets. Higher stock prices reduce the yield on stocks and reduce the cost of financing investment spending through equity issuance (Bosworth, 1975). Tobins q explains on e of the mechanisms through which movements in stock prices can affect the economy the wealth channel. The other channels of monetary policy transmission include the interest rate channel and the exchange rate channel. The wealth channel has the investment effect, wealth effects and balance ragtime effects ( Bernanke and Blinder (1992) and Kashyap, Stein and Wilcox (1993) show that a tightening of monetary policy has a very strong impact on firms that super depend on banks loans to financing their investments as banks reduce their overall fork over of credit. Deteriorating market conditions aff ect firms by also weakening their balance sheets as the present value of collateral falls with rising interest rates and that this effect can be stronger for some firms than for others (Bernanke and Gertler 1989, Kiyotaki and Moore 1997). These two arguments are based on information asymmetries as firms for which more information is publicly purchasable may find it easier to collect loans when credit conditions become tighter (Gertler and Hubbard 1988, Gertler and Gilchrist 1994).Stock returns of small firms chiefly respond more to monetary policy than those of large firms ( Thorbecke 1997, Perez-Quiros and Timmermmann 2000).Some economists (Sprinkle (1964), Homa and Jaffee (1971), hamburger and Kochin (1972)) in the early 1970,s alleged that past information on money come forth could be used to predict future stock returns. These finding where not in line with the efficient market hypothesis which states that all purchasable information should be reflected in authentic price s (Fama, 1970) meaning that expect information should not have any effect on current stock prices. Most economists believe that stock prices react differently to the pass judgment and unlooked-for effects of monetary policy ( Maskay, 2007).The Keynesian economists argue that there is a negative relationship between stock prices and money supply whereas real activity theorists argue that the relationship between the two variables is electropositive (Sellin, 2001). The Keynesian economists believe that a change in money supply or interest rates will affect stock prices only if the change in the money supply alters expectations about future monetary policy term the real activity economists argue that increase in money supply nitty-gritty that money contend is increasing in anticipation of increase in economic activity (Maskay, 2007). Another factor discussed by Sellin (2001) is the risk premium hypothesis proposed by Cornell i.e higher money supply indicates higher money necessi tate and higher money demand suggests increased risk which leads investors to demand higher risk premiums for attribute stocks devising them less attractive. The real activity and risk premium hypothesis is feature by Bernanke and Kuttner (2005) who argue that the price of a stock is a piece of the present value of future returns and the perceived risk in holding the stock.While advocates of the efficient market hypothesis hold that all on hand(predicate) information is included in the price of a stock, the opponents argue other and that stock prices can also be affected by un anticipate changes in money (Corrado and Jordan, 2005). The effect of anticipated and unanticipated changes in money supply on stock prices was analyzed by Sorensen (1982) who found out that unanticipated changes in money supply have a larger impact on the stock market than anticipated changes. Bernanke and Kuttner (2005) on the other hand analyze the impact of announced and unexpected changes in the fe deral property rate and find that the stock market reacts more to unannounced changes than to announced changes in the federal funds rate which is also in line with the efficient market hypothesis. Studies by Husain and Mahmood (1999) have contend results. They analyze the relationship between the money supply and changes (long run and short run) in stock market prices and find that changes in money supply causes changes in stock prices both in the short run and long run implying that the efficient market hypothesis does not always hold.Maskay(2007) analyzes the relationship between money supply and stock prices. He also seperates money supply into anticipated and unanticipated components and adds consumer confidence, real gross domestic product and unemployment rate as defend variables. The result from his analysis shows that there is a positive relationship between changes in the money supply and the stock prices thereby back up the real activity the theorists. The result from his analysis on the effect of anticipated and unanticipated change in the money supply on stock market prices shows that anticipated changes in money supply matters more than unanticipated changes. This supports the critics of the efficient market hypothesis.According to Cecchetti, et al. (2000), macroeconomic military operation can be improved if the central bank increases the short nominal interest rate in response to temporary bubble shocks? that raise the stock price indicator above the value implied by economic fundamentals. On the other hand, Bernanke and Gertler (2001) assumed in their research that the Central Bank cannot tell whether an increase in stock prices is driven by a bubble shock or a fundamental shock.This study will analyze both exogenous and endogenous components of the relationship between monetary policy and the stock market i.e the effect of monetary policy on the stock market and the the effect if any of the stock market on monetary policy decisions. Thi s particular analysis will be done using the federal funds rate as a representative of monetary policy. We also follow the methodology used by Maskay (2007) closely as we try to find the effect of money supply on the stock market. Although Maskay used M2 as a measure of money supply, this study will reissue money supply into M1 and M2 and analyze their relationship with the stock prices.Following from the guess and review of literature, this paper is aimed at answering the following questionsHow do movements in the stock market affect monetary policy decisions on federal funds rates?How does monetary policy affect stock market prices?Do stock market prices react differently to the M1 and M2 components of money supply?RESEARCH METHODOLOGYThe effect of stock market prices on monetary policy.In this section, I test for the relationship between monetary policy and stock prices using the Taylor regulate. The Taylor manage is a monetary policy rule that stipulates how much the central bank would or should change the nominal interest rate in response to the divergence of actual pompousness rates from quarry inflation rates and of actual gross domestic product from potential gross domestic product. The rule is written asit = r*t + ( t *t) + (yt t).. (1)Where it = target short-term nominal interest rate.r*t = assumed equilibrium real interest rate.t = the observed rate of inflation.*t = the desired rate of = the logarithm of real GDP.t = the potential issue.But, to analyze the behavior of monetary policy, the following infantile fixation equation is estimatedit = + Et( t+i *t+i) +Et (yt+i+ t+i)+t ..(2)WhereEt = the expected value conditional to information available at the time.A good conduct of monetary policy should have and each equal to 0.5 as suggested by John Taylor.To conduct our study, we use the following equationit = + Et( t+i *t+i) +Et (yt+i+ t+i)+k t-k + t ..(3)Because the monetary authorities target variables other than inflation and output deviations from the target (asset prices in this case) thereby making equation (2) mis-specified. A standard Taylor rule is well specified when the monetary authorities target only inflation and output deviations from the target. The addition to this variable is the lagged change in asset prices which is added in order to determine the relationship between monetary policy and stock prices.The data for the cost-of-living index (Consumer Price Index), real GDP (Gross interior(prenominal) Product) and the federal funds rate are obtained from the IMF Washington website while the data for SP 500 Index are obtained from the Federal Reserve sparing Data (FRED) of the Federal Reserve Bank of St Louis website www.federal arriere effect of monetary policy on stock market prices.In this section, we test whether movements in stock prices are sometimes dependent on monetary policy. This test is carried out by regressing the actual change in federal funds rates upon t he SP 500 index. We us the following ingenuous model for this purposeSP500 = 1 + 2*actual change in federal funs rate + 3*real GDP + 4* unemployment rate.Real GDP and Unemployment rate are added as control variables. The data for real GDP is obtained from IMF, Washington while the data for unemployment rates in obtained from add GDP because it is an important epitope of the stock prices as most industries react to changes in the economy and do well as the economy does well and vice versa i.e they are procyclical in nature. When the GDP is low, the stock prices generally tend to be low, as the companys performance would be worse than before. A direct, positive relationship is expected between stock prices and the GDP.Unemployment rate is also used as a control variable in this model because it is one of the major factors that determines the demand for stocks thereby either driving the stock prices up or down. When the unemployment rate is high, demand for stock reduces as less people can afford to demoralise them and this subsequently drives down stock prices and vice versa. The unemployment rate is also a proxy for for overall heart demand in the economy ( Maskay, 2007) and when it is low, unite demand is high. We expect an inverse relationship between the unemployment rates and stock prices.The effect of M1 and M2 components of money supply on stock prices.In this section, we test the relationship between monetary policy and stock prices from the money supply angle of monetary policy. We use the M1 and M2 components of money supply for this analysis. This is done by first testing the relationship between the theatrical role change in M1 and the stock prices and then testing the relationship between M2 and the stock market.The simple empirical model used for this test isSP500 = 1 + 2*%M1 + 3*Real GDP + 4*Unemployment rate.. (1)SP500 = 1+ 2*%M2 + *3Real GDP + 4*Unemployment rate.. (2)Unemployment rate and real GDP are also used here as control variables for the same reasons habituated above. The data on percentage change in M1 and M2 were obtained from Federal Reserve frugal Data from the website of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis. We were able to get the monthly data of M1 and M2 and then got the quarterly averages to produce the quarterly data.DATA definitionIn this section, we define and describe the various data used in this study. We used quarterly data from 1990 to 2009. The variables used in this analysis includeThe Federal Funds RateThe federal funds rate is a monetary policy tool used by the Central Bank/Federal reserve of the country to regulate the economy. Economists believe it has an inverse relationship with stock prices as because when there is an upward movement in stock prices above the desirable level, the federal reserve increases (contractionary) the federal funds rate . This leads to a decrease in the amount of money demanded by individuals thereby causing a lower demand for stocks and energy down stock prices. We obtained data on the federal funds rate from the website of the federal reserve bank of Louisiana.2. The Consumer Price IndexA consumer price index (CPI) is an index that estimates the average price of consumer goods and services purchased by households. It is used in our study to calculate inflation. We do this using the eviews software (100 (cpi cpi ( -4)). We obtained the quarterly data on CPI from the website of the International Monetary fund in washington. The CPI has an inverse relationship with monetary policy actions.3. Real Gross Domestic Product (Real GDP)This can be defined as a measure which adjusts for inflation and reflects the value of all goods and services produced in a given year, expressed in base year prices. Real GDP provides a more accurate figure as it accounts for changes in the price level. The quarterly data on Real GDP is obtained from the website of the International Monetary Fund, Washington.4. SP 500It is a ca pital weighted index of the prices of 500 large-cap greenness stocks actively traded in the United States. It is believed to have an inverse relationship with monetary policy as an expansionary (interest rate reduction) monetary policy leads to an upward movement of the sp500 index. The quarterly data for the sp500 is obtained from the federal reserve bank of Louisiana.5. Unemployment RateThe unemployment rate is used as one of the control variables. It is an important indicator of the eudaimonia of an economy. The lower the unemployment rate, the higher the aggregate demand for stock thereby pushing up stock prices. The quarterly data on unemployment rate is obtained from the website of the Federal Reserve Bank of Louisiana. We get the quarterly data by finding quarterly averages from the monthly data provided.6. Monetary aggregates M1 and M2M1 is a monetary aggregate and it includes the transaction deposits of banks and cash in circulation and all other money equivalents that a re easily convertible into cash while includes M1 plus short-term deposits in banks and 24-hour money market funds. Money supply has a positive relationship with stock prices because the higher the money supply, the higher the demand for stock which in conclusion increases stock prices. We split money supply into M1 and M2 to find out if they have the same relationship with stock prices. The quarterly data on percentage change in monetary aggregates is obtained from the website of the federal reserve bank of Louisiana. We also had to calculate the quarterly averages of the monthly data given.DATA ANALYSIS mystify 1 The Taylor ruleit = r*t + ( t *t) + (yt t)+ t open varying FED_FUNDS_RATEMethod Least Squares understand 07/05/10 Time 2019Sample(adjusted) 19911 20094include observations 76 after adjusting endpointsVariableCoefficientStd. shiftt-StatisticProb.C3.6155131.2207832.9616340.0041INFLATION0.6842640.1562124.3803480.0000OUTPUT_GAP-1.42E-069.83E-07-1.4428030.1534R-square0.24 9642Mean dependent var3.860658 set R-squared0.229085S.D. dependent var1.686064S.E. of backsliding1.480394Akaike info measuring rod3.661167 entireness squared resid159.9844Schwarz criterion3.753170 record likelihood-136.1244F-statistic12.14348Durbin-Watson stat0.181830Prob(F-statistic)0.000028The estimation results areit =3.62 + 0.68( t *t) 1.42 (yt t)The coefficient associated to inflation is positive, 0.68, but is statistically significant with a p-value of 0.00. The coefficient associated with the output chap is negative (-1.42) and statistically significant. The estimated stabilizing rate of interest (c) is positive (3.61) and statistically significant. An R-squared of 0.25 means that we are only able to explain about 25% of the variation in the interest rate.The augmented taylor rule modelit = + Et( t+i *t+i) +Et (yt+i+ t+i)+1 t-1 + t one lag open Variable FED_FUNDS_RATEMethod Least SquaresDate 07/05/10 Time 2130Sample(adjusted) 19913 20094Included observations 74 after a djusting endpointsVariableCoefficientStd. Errort-StatisticProb.C8.2989611.2808936.4790440.0000INFLATION_F0.5489990.1811983.0298250.0034OUTPUT_GAP_F-9.10E-061.51E-06-6.0419260.0000S(-1)4.24E-057.35E-065.7757670.0000R-squared0.442430Mean dependent var3.809595Adjusted R-squared0.418534S.D. dependent var1.678852S.E. of simple regression1.280190Akaike info criterion3.384432Sum squared resid114.7220Schwarz criterion3.508976Log likelihood-121.2240F-statistic18.51494Durbin-Watson stat0.214690Prob(F-statistic)0.000000InterpretationThe estimated regression isit = 8.30 + 0.55Et( t+i *t+i) -9.10Et (yt+i+ t+i)+4.24t-kThe coefficient associated to expected inflation is positive (0.55) but is statistically significant because it has a p-value of 0f 0.003, the coefficient associated with expected output gap is negative (-9.10) and is statistically significant (p-value = 0.000). The coefficient associated with the change in asset prices (lagged by 1 for better estimation) which is denoted by S (-1) is negative and it is statistically significant therefore we reject the null hypothesis. The measure of goodness of fit (R-square) is 0.44 meaning that we are able to explain about 44% of the variability in the interest rateOur model lucidly overestimates the actual interest rate and the residuals do not seem to be independently and identically distributed. We therefore conduct some tests which include1. The Jacque-Bera test This is a statistic that measures the leaving of the skewness and kurtosis of the series with those from a normal distribution.By simply expression at the histogram, we can see that the distribution is roughly normal and the jarque-bera statistic of 0.58 shows that it is not statistically significant and we should accept the null hypothesis.The white test This is used to test whether the errors are heteroskedastic or not. In the presence of heteroskedasticity, OLS estimates are consistent but efficient.White Heteroskedasticity TestF-statistic3.846209Probabil ity0.000621Obs*R-squared25.97528Probability0.002062Test equationDependent Variable RESID2Method Least SquaresDate 07/06/10 Time 0041Sample 19913 20094Included observations 74VariableCoefficientStd. Errort-StatisticProb.C-35.2896124.46199-1.4426300.1540INFLATION_F-5.4196573.008210-1.8016220.0763INFLATION_F20.3072310.2002861.5339610.1300INFLATION_F*OUTPUT_GAP_F5.95E-062.83E-062.1055860.0392INFLATION_F*S(-1)-2.78E-051.73E-05-1.6033610.1138OUTPUT_GAP_F9.90E-055.34E-051.8525580.0686OUTPUT_GAP_F2-6.19E-112.74E-11-2.2572880.0274OUTPUT_GAP_F*S(-1)3.35E-101.43E-102.3372900.0226S(-1)-0.0003090.000140-2.2052820.0310S(-1)2-7.97E-115.33E-10-0.1496790.8815R-squared0.351017Mean dependent var1.550298Adjusted R-squared0.259754S.D. dependent var1.968439S.E. of regression1.693596Akaike info criterion4.016674Sum squared resid183.5692Schwarz criterion4.328034Log likelihood-138.6169F-statistic3.846209Durbin-Watson stat0.580160Prob(F-statistic)0.000621According to the two test statistics involved in the regression result, we can say that the distribution is statistically significant so we can reject null hypothesis.The Durbin-Watson test This is used to test for serial correlation. Autocorrelated residuals means that OLS is no longer best, linear, unbiased estimators and that the standard errors computed using the OLS formula are not correct. The Durbin-Watson statistic of 0.214690 shows that there is positive serial correlation as DW feigning 2SP500 = 1 + 2 federal funds rate + 3real GDP + 4unemployment rate.The aim of this model is to determine if the federal funds rate has any impact on the stock market. Real GDP and unemployment rate are used as control variables for reasons given in the research methodology.Dependent Variable SP500Method Least SquaresDate 07/06/10 Time 0138Sample 19901 20094Included observations 80VariableCoefficientStd. Errort-StatisticProb.C-115.7008222.2313-0.5206320.6041FED_FUNDS_RATE0.99030112.964360.0763860.9393REAL_GDP010.1595380.01032715.449160.0000UNE MPLOYMENT_RATE-119.567417.42177-6.8631010.0000R-squared0.872734Mean dependent var924.0339Adjusted R-squared0.867710S.D. dependent var378.2205S.E. of regression137.5651Akaike info criterion12.73478Sum squared resid1438237.Schwarz criterion12.85388Log likelihood-505.3912F-statistic173.7244Durbin-Watson stat0.350064Prob(F-statistic)0.000000InterpretationThe estimated regression issp500 =-115.78 + 0.99*actual change in federal funds rate + 0.16*real GDP 119.57* unemployment rate.The coefficient associated with the federal funds rate is negative and is not statistically significant. The coefficient associated with the real GDP is positive and is statistically significant while the coefficient associate

Moral Standards In Advertising Media Essay

Moral Standards In publicise Media EssayEthics of advert hindquarters be defined as honourable activity, corresponding non precisely to law but besides to moral principles. Although the mean(prenominal) morals considers carrying out of laws as a basic or minimal level, ethical side of advertize actu aloney goes far beyond the simple implementation of laws. The basis of ethical finalitys is formed on a series of concepts obligations to the society, responsibility to both internal (company or client) and external (publicity) parties, and latent intentions of advertise. While announce is pervasive universe an element of the environment, ethical advertisers ar responsible for winning into account the expected and possible unintended consequences of their activities.One of the fundamental principles of the unblock market society is that consumers bring on free and informed choice. It is consumers who vote with their money and determine the behavior of companies. Advert ising is the function of business, which transfers this principle into practice. By definition, consumers cannot make an informed choice without training obtained from publicizing. It is no wonder that truth in publicise is regarded as one of the central ethical principles of doing business. In former(a)wise words, e genuinelything said in the advert should correspond to the reality.Challenging this rationale, advertisers sometimes plentifulness with ethical problems with the way ad is created and executed. Often, the question concerns the borders of permitted activity in employ such(prenominal) prevalent in publicize approaches, as inflation (exaggeration of the merits of the denote goods or services), metaphor and hyperbole. For example, an advertizement, running that restaurant X situated in East Side is the best Italian restaurant in the world, is purely speaking, hardly true. But the advertisers be hoping that they be dealing with an audience, well inner in an nounce (i.e. the audience, disillusioned about the main purpose of advertising to sell the advertised product and the means to achieve this goal). Such an informed, sober-minded audience can make allowances for the usual exaggeration in advertising. This means that advertising may, without violating ethical standards, contain symbols, illustrations, similes and metaphors enhancing its assertions.However, the situation is much more serious with advertising which deliberately deceives or misleads the consumers. Deceptive advertisement latently provides exclusively partial information on products or contains statements about the price which mislead the consumers. The same concerns advertisement containing accurate information, but presented in an incomprehensible for the consumer form, or in an unified form inside a newspaper or magazine article, or as part of a television or radio program. many a(prenominal) consumers alike fear that some types of advertising are influencing the sub cognizance. Since these messages get to the consumer bypassing the consciousness and sensory perception, they are often not only unethical, but also illegal, beca practice session they can set up the freedom of consumer choice. Despite the fact that studies allow shown the ineffectiveness of subliminal techniques (e.g., the notorious 25-second frame), the public is still suspecting advertisers in the wide use of such techniques.Ethical issues also arise in the case of conjunction of celebrities in advertising. Famous sports and movie stars can significantly affect the decision making process of the consumers. Therefore, officially thereve been developed specific recommendations for the creation of such advertising in order to make it more ethical. The character of advertising should be a user of an advertised product, and his statements must fairly hypothe coat his personal opinion. All statements made by the character must have actual proof. Concerns about advertising with celebrities are so great that in some countries such as Canada, it is prohibited for certain product categories, such as alcoholic beverages and certain childrens products.Criticism is also justified in cases of some advertising methods, in particular, playing on fear of consumers. For example, advertising of a certain physique of cereal containing oat and bran was built on fears of cancer. However, these products do not factually contain more fiber than many other natural foods, and they increase the chance to prevent only one kind of cancer, whereas the advertising considered the prevention of cancer in general. Such advertisement can be considered misleading, manipulating the audience and exploiting the feelings of consumers.At the same time, the visual part of the advertisement deserves no less than the text edition. Since consumers typi bandy pay more attention to images than to the text accompanying them. In particular, the claims involve the fact that the advertisement show s the product big than it really is. Another example of unethical imaging is the way advertising depicts women. Using models for the advertisement, advertisers also apply particular(a) methods of processing images, allowing characters to look perfect, with dead no pigment spots and wrinkles. This actually presents a process of forming an exemplification image, unattainable in real life. Attempts of female consumers to become similar to those warning models finally ends in disappointment, feeling unhappy, loss of self-esteem, inferiority complex, and even guilt. Models are tall and extremely slim in an effort to be care them, some young women and girls being unable to do anything with their height, direct all their eagerness to their extra pounds, sometimes bringing themselves to anorexia.Heated discussion also surrounds the image of women in advertising of household goods, where they invariably appear as the main executors of domestic work, showing them on the sidelines of fam ily decision making process. Women are also often unethically shown as sexual objects, but straight off this aspect is complexified by the modern tendency to depict men in the same way, together with the ambiguity of child images in advertising. Sometimes kids are shown in sexual poses with the provocative make-up, and half-dressed, while new styles of advertisement translate displaying certain parts of human body as the main objects of the image, which is only emphasizing sexuality. Older people represent another group of people, harmed by stereotypes which generate from advertising. Feeble, trembling, wrinkled old people, unable to solve simplest tasks, are being targeted with advertising humor. However, this advertising image of hoary people is often very far from reality, in which the elderly lead active and interesting life. more advertisers state that advertising does not create reality, but only holds a mirror which reflects the society. But if that was true, we would see the images of various social groups in the advertisement. However, the characters (with both genders) of most of the advertisements in North America and Europe are young, slim, clean and extremely athletic. While some advertisers are beginning to realize the greatness of different cultural groups, the number of ads with black skin people is evolution but the characters of Asian, and Hispanic origin are still met relatively rarely. Advertising also never positions disabled people, and the elderly are participating only in advertising of dentures and nutritional supplements for elderly people.In addition, certain segments of the people could perceive everything shown in the advertisement as the reality, or misunderstand the special holds or precautions on the proper use of advertised goods (immigrants, some elderly consumers, children, people lacking education, etc.), which shouldnt be just used for the benefit of a company. A well-known example is the case of advertising offerin g children to call Santa Claus on a pay telephone numbers beginning with 900. some children (including those staying at home after school without their parents) called on those numbers without realizing the size of bills that could come for such a conversation.Moral standards of advertising are establish on the principles of freedom of choice and freedom of action. These principles come from the belief in the benefits of the free market economy. Informed consumers have freedom of action they regularize the business activities of companies with their individual purchase decisions. Consumers right to freedom of choice is tenacious with two other principles freedom from coercion and freedom from harm. Advertising should not use unfaithful techniques in order to persuade consumers or manipulate them, pushing to a bad choice. Faithful advertising, which imparts accurate information, is an indispensable condition for consumers informed decisions about products and services. Nowadays, a dvertising detached from unethical standards may be unique and sets the standard for the industry. It has value to both clients and consumers. Thus, the terms ethics of advertising and moral standards in advertising are not just a combination of mutually exclusive concepts, but without a doubt, present normal business practices.

Saturday, March 30, 2019

History of the English Language Development

History of the face spoken spoken vocabulary DevelopmentWhat differs us mercifuls from animals is the fact that humans deport abilities to manipulate things that happen in daily life. Humans argon able to think whether a received action can cause good or harm to themselves or people around them. An early(a) essential difference that distinguishes humans and animals is the wrangle utilize in communication. It is lyric poem, other than anything else that differs humankinds from fellow earthlings. It is a fact that other animals do communicate with each other, in more various styles, for example, standard for enemies or danger, calling for mating, or other various screams of cries to deliver their anger, awe or pleasure (Barber, 1993). However, these various calls of communication for their species differ from the uniqueness of the human phrase. Barber as well states that a human vocabulary is a super elaborated signalling system, a favorable tool, which uses vocal sounds. Languages are utilise verbally and in writings. From the history, language is learned spoken first, while compose language is secondary.According to Crystal (2016), a language dies when it is not spoken or employ anymore. Holmes (1992) states that language dies when all of its speakers die. However, when the speakers of a language shifts to use another(prenominal) language, the phenomena is called language shifts. Every language transports, even though the levels of the changes vary from catamenia to while, which is why it is any(prenominal)what laborious to be read or soundless the language that is from the early years. An example could be taken from Barbers The face Language A Historical Introduction (1993), English people find it hard to compreh oddment an English document from the year 1300, where it is only possible for them to get word if they have some special training. Documents in 900 look like a foreign language text to them, as it looks like it has no data link to Standard English.There are three recognized catamenias in the ripening of the English language where the first period, dated from 450 to 1150 is known as oldish English. According to Baugh and Cable (1993), this period is described as full inflections, where the land upings of the noun, the adjective, and the verb are preserved more or less impaired. The next period starts from 1150 to 1500, is the shopping mall English period, or known as the period of levelled inflections, which started at the overthrow of the grey-haired English period, and the inflections during that period is said to be remarkablely levelled down. The at long last period, which is up until now is called as the Modern English period, which started since 1500. This period is also described as the period of prejudice inflections where the inflections in the language are completely vanished.The meat English period, as stated by Baugh and Cable, is the period of a great change, where the la nguage changes that happened during the period are more bulky and fundamental in comparison to the changes in the language that took place in Old English and Modern English period. Every language changes from time to time, it is the matter of the amount of changes that occur in the language. The major causes of the language changes were on the face of it because of the track of time, and mite, even though the changes and processes in the core English period that associates with the language contact are various (Penhallurick, 2010).The Norman invasion to England in 1066 is one of the main causes that brought changes in the language from Old English to optic English as they brought cut into the land. Their invasion to England naturally had a significant effect on Englands institutions and its languages. The language changes that were brought from the French during their reach were already existed in the Old English. They were speaking in French only somehow forged by the Germ anic dialect. The dialect is called Norman French. According to (Virtual Medieval Church and Its Writings, 2003), this agency transmits to the citizens speak the English language, whilst the Normans speak Norman French. In time, the two languages started to shamble together which then brings the existence of the lay English. Around ten railyard French delivery were brought into English by the thirteenth hundred. Most of these French loans still exist in the English language today.According to (Oxford English Dictionary, 2016), spunk English, based on the external history, is trapped at its origin by the consequences of the settlements of the Norman Conquest in 1066, and its end by the arrival of the create process documents by William Caxton in 1476, in Britain and by the important social and cultural impacts of the English Reformation (from the 1530s onwards) and of the ideas of the continental Renaissance. The change from Old English to Middle English seemed to look a bit rapid by the rising of refreshing spelling inventions by the Normans. The language used during that time, which is the tungsten Saxon, was no longer used, due to the social and political disruption by the Norman Conquest. The changes that they brought include changes in the spelling where they used the spellings that coupleed more to the way they pronounce it in their spoken dialect. In addition, the scribes occasionally changed the spelling of the rowing they were copying to their own dialectal pronunciation, when they see if any did not match theirs. The Normans disapprove the traditional English spelling, therefore they spelt the language as how they heard it, which is using the conventions of Norman French. Both Barber (1993) and Freeborn (1992) mentioned these facts in their books. Examples of the changes made by the Normans could be taken from (Virtual Medieval Church and Its Writings, 2003), much(prenominal) as qu for cw (queen for cwen).The scribes also introduced gh ( instead of h) in such lyric poem as wickedness and enough, and ch (instead of c) in such words as church. Another change introduced was ou for u (as in house). Yet one more change was the use of c before e (instead of s) in such words as cercle (circle) and cell.The loss of inflections in the Middle English period also include the trim amount in nouns, pronouns and adjectives. The Peterborough tarradiddle, a medieval text written at Peterborough Abbey during the Old English period, where the continuations of the chronicle then shows the Middle English characteristics in the script even though in some ways the characteristics of the Old English still continues. Penhallurick (2010) mentions that the Normans are obviously the ones responsible for the mixings of French and Middle English, that they brought the scribes who are French-trained into England after their conquest. Three sources were affecting the changes in the Middle English and the changes can be seen from the Peterboro ugh Chronicle where a significant number of new words are drawn upon the Scandinavian, Latin and French. This shows that not only French caused the Middle English, but also the Norse and the Latins.The Norsemen brought in their words into Middle English which include grammar words oc but, um about, through, and til until, to. These are the effects of the contact amongst the English and the Norsemen during the 9th, 10th and 11th centuries, which is also a significant change of characteristic of Middle English. Borrowing or loanwords are the terms used for this situation where words which originated from a certain language is brought into another language and is used in the language. During the settlement of the Vikings in England, many another(prenominal) Old Norse words were brought into Old English. Examples from Penhallurick (2010), nouns such as birth, husband, leg, skirt and sky, and verbs like to call, die, give, nag, take, and thrust. As stated by Baugh and Cable (2002), 90 0 loanwords from the Scandinavian that are still survived and in use in the modern standard English these days, but many other words also still survived but instead in the dialects of the former Danelaw, words like beck steam, dag to drizzle, and laik to play. Sisam (1975) mentions that the Norse words essential have come into English even before the Middle English period, because the settlements of the Vikings stopped after the Norman Conquest. Sisam also states that it is not always weak to differentiate the Norse and the Middle English as both of the languages have many similarities during the borrowing period, and also the Norse words are borrowed sooner early to be affected by Middle English.The language influence from the Latins started during the early days of English. When the Germanic tribe started English, they had already been in contact with the Romans in the continental Europe, which was when the Germanic tribes very beginning of their settlements in the British Isles . Many Latin words were borrowed into the tribes language during their settlement in the British Isles, where they borrowed from Britishs Celtic speaking people, which they got from the Romans. Latin during that time was the language of the Christian church, which tag the Englands conversion to Christianity. This correlates with Sisams (1975) statement where there were few direct borrowings from Latin and about of it are taken from the technical language of church. Penhallurick (2010) states that the practice of writing documents in Latin during that time was somewhat usual and was joined by many of the Norman scribes, which gave the borrowings from Latin a new motivation during the early Middle English period.Not only Old Norse and Latin words that were noted in the continuations of the Peterborough chronicle, but also new loan words from French, although there were only small number of it in the continuation. As an example, from Penhallurick (2010), duc duke, and pasches pasch, easter, including some loan words that were not only new additions to language but also eventually replaced present English words during that time, for example tresor treasure, and pais peace. This language development, the emerge of the French loans can be best described as started from very few words to over 10000 French words were borrowed during the end of the Middle English period. The total number of words borrowed is one(prenominal) considering that the total amount of Old English words were only 24000 approximately. From the Peterborough Chronicle examples, the French loans can be divided into two general types, which is either the new words are just new members of the English language which has new concepts or definitions, or new words that have the kindred definitions to an existing word in the native language. The effects of this duplication could lead to either the loss of one of the words between the languages (usually the English word), or there could be the develop ment in differentiation in subject matter between the words. Penhallurick (2010) gives an example, OE leod was pushed out altogether by French-derived people, whereas English might survives beside French-derived power, munificent beside royal, and wish beside desire. It is the royal family, never the kingly family and genies grant three wishes, preferably than three desires. Sisam (1975) compares French with Norse, where he states that French language had little common land with English, not like the Scandinavians, which brings to why the amount of French words used in the English texts is lesser in comparison to Old Norse and Latin, before the late thirteenth and fourteenth centuries.French continued to be the official language of England until the mid of fourteenth century, the years after, English became the language of instructions, and became the official language of legal records or events, where later at the end of fourteenth century, everyone spoke English. When the Lond on dialect emerged, it became the standard spoken and written language. During the end of 1500, English language has reached the language that is similar to as what is used today, which shows that Modern English started being used around that time. The arrival of printing press set up, invented by William Caxton in 1476 marked the starting of the end of the Middle English (Freeborn, 1992). If the Norman Conquest marked the start of the changes in the Middle English, William Caxton did the same for the start of the Modern English. Caxton is recognized for the arrival of printing in England through his work and a standard for the English language. His donation brings us to the early period of the Modern English (Weiner, 2013).ReferencesBarber, C., Beal, J. and Shaw, P. (2013). The English language. foremost ed. Cambridge Cambridge University Press.Baugh, A. and Cable, T. (2013). A history of the English language. initiatory ed. London (2003). The Ma king of Middle English. online functional at http// Accessed 12 Mar. 2017.Crystal, D. (2016). English as a global language. 1st ed. Cambridge Cambridge University Press.Freeborn, D. (1992). From Old English to standard English. 1st ed. York Freeborn.Graddol, D., Leith, D. and Swann, J. (1996). English. 1st ed. Milton Keynes England Open University.Holmes, J. (2013). An introduction to sociolinguistics. 1st ed. Harlow Pearson.Oxford English Dictionary. (2016). Middle English-an overview Oxford English Dictionary. online Available at http// Accessed 12 Mar. 2017.Penhallurick, R. (2010). Studying the English language. 1st ed. Basingstoke Palgrave Macmillan.Sisam, K. (1975). Fourteenth century verse and prose. Ed. by Kenneth Sisam. (Repr.). 1st ed. Oxford Clarendon P XLVII.

Friday, March 29, 2019

Impact of Online Learning on the Education System

Impact of Online seting on the Education SystemTopic Area Education for entirelyCan online eruditeness replace our sure toughie of statement? inst entirelyationWe live in a world where access to most resources (thanks to the meshwork) ar just a click a charge. The only resource that gullms to be attempt to reach to the majority of the world through this method is schooltimeing or command. Is it possible for education to remove the w totallys around our schools? Can our current theoretical account of education be replaced by online breeding?GlobalHow has online seting bear upon our world?Online learning has been tabu on that point since search giants the wish Google, chawbacon and Bing were set up. The only difference between now and then is that preliminary it was difficult to prove that you had knowledge ab come on a subject beca office there was very little establishment of what you knew unless you could demonstrate it. Earlier all organizations mandated p roper certification or documents of qualifications. Its only now that online learning offers proper certification. And in accordance to that online learning is slowly driveting accepted in companies and organizations with the proof of the certificate(s) achieved by doing so. Online learning offers courses on everything from counting on your fingers to university level Astrophysics.As of 2013, the number of throng in Colleges 183 cardinalSecondary School 568.5 millionPrimary School 713.6 millionTotal number of students 1.436 billion (20.5% of the quantity population in 2013)The laws that govern population growth entail that these meter would have grown in the past 4 years and would be approximately 1.501 billion hatful (20.5% of 7.461 billion total population). tally to EdSurge the number of students on the big 3 online learning sites (edX, Coursera and Udacity) were a stun 24 million.United States of AmericaSeveral universities identical Harvard rase encourage their students to view video get tos so they posterior enforce the time for the lecture for doing somewhatthing else and when they atomic number 18 large-minded they can simply view the lecture. According to Udacity CEO, Sebastian Thrun, some 4 million registered users worldwide, and ab come in 60,000 locking on nanodegrees at any unmatchable one time. In several schools in USA, the teachers use khan Academy to precaution/conduct their daily classes. The Massachusetts Institute of Technology has put approximately all of its courses online on MIT OpenCourseW be for all student regardless of their nationality, or the college/university they attend. This genuinely helps students a destiny since most of the material for math and science is almost the same as their universities/schools/colleges.IndiaIn countries like India where students are pushed to their mental and sensible limits to achieve grades that yield are a speed of light percent modal(a) or the equivalent, these ce rtificates show a nonher stairway to success to these students. Students now deal to websites like edX, Coursera, Udacity and khan Academy to learn whatever they need to or in several cases require to. This also allows the students to excel in their studies, and get better career opportunities in their future, as online learning shows an effort to learn beyond what is expected of a student. The Rajasthan state government is going to lead Khan Academy lessons as part of their day to day school curriculum to provide their students with a platform with universally accepted teaching-learning models and techniques. only when due to different problems like beggary and table serviceability of electricity (which I will address later) it is difficult to pound over to online education.ChinaIn China the number of universities and colleges offering online learning platforms has skyrocketed in the past years. 30 aside 110 of Chinas well-known universities have an online learning platfo rm. Chinas ministry of education has been promote a make out of students to take online courses, however no university is allowed to give out degrees.Another advantage to online learning is that you can view videos/lectures as umpteen times as you need to. You can ask for help on forums on many online learning sites. Online learning also offers a lot of different perspective and immense exposure. Google was one of the first multi-national organisations to employ people not based on their qualifications or proof of knowledge/learning rather based on their skills and experience.There is an option for the learner to avail for the Honour Code Certificate however courses offering these certificates are super few and when a learner presents an honour code certificate as part of their CV or rsum, they are looked at with suspicion as the scathe of the honour code are literally honouring your word. The reason honour code certificates and statements of achievement (based on the honour code) were stop is because of misuse of the particular that there was no way to verify (branching out to Verified Certificates) that the person doing the course is the person whose represent is on the certificate. On the other hand, support certificates use a government issued ID to function and the name on the certificate has to match the one on the ID. This reduces chances of someone else doing your work for you. A problem with certification for online learning and online courses is that almost all the verified certificates on the most online learning platforms are now paid and these prices are very high. A lot of the paid/verified certificates on edX are for $50 and quite a few of them are for a vitamin C dollars. As a matter of fact, Udacity has a minute number of free courses and all other courses on Udacity are paid. This makes it difficult for a learner to get these certificates because of the cost of these certificates. This reduces the number of learners completing the course, contary to what is said by edX when a user enrols into a course Its a proven motivator to empty the course. These prices can create a barbed-wire around the school we are assay to render wall-less.Another fact worth considering is, that in a lot of countries schooling/college is expensive and development free, online resources can help you save all that money.For the world as one, I destine the developed countries (like the United States) should fasten on by using online education to arouse and ultimately replace their current models of education. By doing so, they would set an example and would encourage other countries to be like them.NationalIs replacing the current model of education with online learning operable in my country?According to the Indian Ministry of Social Justice and empowerment 27.5% of Indias population is below the poverty line, which is roughly 367.48 million people (Population of India 1,336,286,256 * 27.5/100 = 367478720). I bank, asking st udents/people who are underprivileged to learn using online resources, is inappropriate because having an internet connection is expensive and without one online learning is impossible. So its almost like saying the water is free but the way to get to the water is paid (and expensive). So I do not think it is feasible to replace my countrys current model of education with online learning. localIs replacing the current model of education with online learning feasible for the students in my school/community?According to a survey I conducted among my friends on my social networking circles (Link to responses available in the bibliography below) 98.3% of the people use the internet for learning something, studying and/or work.Most people use the internet for 5-8 hours a day.22.4% of the people use google and/or other search engines to learn what they want to.5.1% also use Khan Academy and use search engines.1.7% use Khan Academy and similar websites for studying.6.9% do the points menti oned to a higher place and also use edX, Coursera and similar platforms for studying.3.4% use Khan Academy and edX/Coursera and other platforms for studying.11.9% use the internet for college/university work and use all of uses mentioned above.49.2% use all/some of the tools mentioned above and also work.Keeping the above points in mind I believe that my friends circle can depend on the internet for schooling/education or can use the internet to enhance this essential process. personalisedAs an individual I believe I can switch over to the Internet for my education as I have no problems with Internet access, and the colleges/universities I am considering for my further education accept and even encourage online learning and certification, which again is not a problem with me. I find that I can fit into that group of people who can and should turn to online learning. I find that using E-Books and E-Lectures is more convenient and environmentally friendly (using E-Books rather than b ooks). I can also get my workforce on to material that sometimes teachers in class might not be able to cover. I think that replacing the current model of education with online education is possible for me, although I might require a teacher to guide me at times.Personal ResponseMy research and quiz were partly inspired by Salman Khans (educationist) Ted Talk (in 2011) and I had turned to online resources for learning. Salman Khan tells us how the traditional academic model is not cut out for the extremes of the Bell Curve the students who find a topic/subject easy, and the ones who dont, but the system is rather suited for the average student. He says that, just like in Music or Martial Arts, you only move onto a further skill once youve mastered the basic. But as all of us know, most of our schools cannot compensate for the students who lag behind in a subject/concept and the class simply has to move on. He uses the cheese-block similitude and demonstrates to us how minor gaps in our knowledge can make the biscuit crumble (the cheese in this case). So I see myself working on Khan academy to do the best I can and learn all I can because according to Sal Khan You only need to know one thing You can learn anything. This will help me and can also inspire other people to be like me.Possible Future ScenariosThe world needs to incarnate that traditional schools and curricula will not be able to cope with our rapidly changing world. Getting the world to accept online resources as instead of/to enhance our education, we need a little amount struggle to overcome the earthy resistance to change that we have, monetary funding and support from governments of the world (in terms of providing cheap internet access and pushing learners to use online resources). After pickings these steps the world would slowly but surely be a better place.The world can simply ignore the fact that online education holds the key to our future and would not embrace online learning, wh ich would cause problems several other problems (like accessibility of space for schools, teachers and staff required to run the school and availability of books etc). It would also cause a rise in illiteracy and poverty (since it would restrict learning and schooling to schools and colleges only). Taking into account my research, I think that this scenario is not very apt(predicate) to occur.The world can realise this fact now and can help our future generations to focus on keeping up high in the sky rather than getting out of problems like illiteracy and poverty. Considering what I learnt through the course of my research, this scenario is very plausibly to occur.The world can move toward Scenario 2 but might not be able to make enough progress due to problems like poverty, illiteracy and lack of access to the internet. This would cause these problems to grow further. This scenario is highly likely to occur.__________________________________________________________________Bibl iographyhttps// names/215167977-Does-edX-offer-free-certificateshttps// middle=76672https// (Responses for survey)http// discipline ?v=-MTRxRO5SRAhttp// reproduction?language=enhttps//

HEC-HMS Evaluation

HEC-HMS EvaluationHEC-HMS is a hydro lumberical model that poop be practice sessiond to check the effect of a assail found pillowcase on a urineshed or a free burning seeming. HEC-HMS is distri preciselyed model but it deals with a drainage area as a conceptual model which consist of sub- lavatory and r separately. HEC-HMS is very powerful as it has many options for hydrological calculations and a user-defined is one of the options. One of the uses of the HEC-HMS is to predict the future urbanization that can conk in a watershed and the corresponding flood that could happen. HEC-HMS alone can non own the places of the flooded sports stadium but the hydrograph extracted from the HEC-HMS can be used in HEC-RAS and RAS-mapper to get the inundated map of the city due to a authorized storm event. In this lab, a simple simulation solelyow for be used to simulate the hydrograph of Tifton watershed.In order to build a HEC-HMS depict, at that place are elements should be add ed first. The main servings that the HEC-HMS require is the basin component which contains the basin properties such(prenominal) as sub-basins, reaches and concurrences, the metrological component which contains the rain gages that giveing be used for precipitation, the control component which contains the simulation conviction period and the beat series component which contains any time series info such as the hyetograph or hydrograph.HEC-HMS has four main windows which are the component window, billet window, alteror window and capacity log window. The component window contains both the created components so that we can toggle between them. In order to edit any of the components chosen from the component window, the editor window is used and it contains lozenge but for global data entry or edit the component menu is used. The view window shows the selected basin, result or table. The log pass shows if in that location is error or the model has found no job as for e xample as shown in betoken 1 the log message says, Note 10008 Finish opening project. Which means that the project was opened successfully with no errors found. approach pattern 1 Log message of HEC-HMSBasin componentAs mention before that the HEC-HMS is conceptualizing the watershed, so we will import the watershed image as a background as shown in go through 2 and draw on it the corresponding component. This is a simple watershed that contains only one sub-basin and one outlet. the sub-basin is named 74006 and the outlet is junction in HEC-HMS and at that place is no reach used for flow impart routing. imagine 2 HEC-HMS desk put across viewThe sub-basin properties should be entered for HEC-HMS to use in calculations. The main property is the catchment plain as the HEC-HMS is development all the catchment symbolled in one point (sub-basin 74006). The other properties that should be entered are the hydrological calculations that the HEC-HMS will use to calculate the hydrograph at the outlet of the sub-basin as shown in Figure 3.Figure 3 Sub-Basin hydrological calculation regularitysCanopy is the mode used to calculate the water intercepted on the tree that avoid the water to reach the ground. The percentage of vegetation obtained from remote sensing is used to determine the cover. In this lab, simple canopy method is used which need only the initial water terminal in the tree and the maximum terminal that the plant can hold.In order to indicate the surface memory board that can happen in the watershed there are different methods, in this lab a simple surface is used. The simple surface method is mainly saw how much is the initial storage and the maximum storage. The maximum storage grant in this lab is zero which is useless as the surface method can be selected as none instead. To get the parameters of the initial storage and maximum storage a site investigation can be done or throughout satellite maps and DEM the surface depletions and storage area can be calculated roughly.Infiltration losses is indicated here as the loss method. The loss method that is widely used is the Horton equation but in this lab the soil wet loss is used. The soil moisture loss method mainly works as the soil moisture content and the maximum infiltration pose of the vadous zone of the soil as well as the groundwater beneath the vadous zone depth and the percolation rate from vadous zone to the groundwater and if the groundwater is into two different soil type provide the data to each soil type. In order to get the data for this method a soil surveying is required or from a former defined data as the FAO maps or Canada CIRUS maps.The unit hydrograph for the basin is not known so a synthetic hydrograph will be used. in that respect are different synthetic hydrograph methods in HEC-HMS, in this lab Clark (1945) Hydrograph is used. The Clark building block Hydrograph is divided into translation based on synthetic time area curve and time of conc entration as well as a reduction of discharge as overindulgence rainfall is stored in watershed. Clark unit of measurement Hydrograph is modeled with analogue reservoir for baseflow. The parameters for the Clark Unit Hydrograph is the time of concentration and the storage coefficient. Time of concentration can be calculated using watershed properties or from previous observations but the storage coefficient most liable(predicate) will be calibrated.The wrinklear reservoir is used for baseflow separation. Baseflow is linearly related to reasonable storage of each time interval similar to the Clark unit Hydrograph. The linear reservoir also is used with the soil moisture content as it depends of the water in the groundwater and how it returns back to be a holdd to the hydrograph as a baseflow. The parameters of the baseflow is hard to measure so it will be most likely calibrated.Time series componentIn the time series component, a rainfall hyetograph is entered in the rain gages using the Tifton DSS file provided with the project. After ledger entry the hyetograph, the graph can be shown as shown in Figure 4. The hyetograph will then be assigned to the basin in the metrological compenent.Figure 4 Tifton HyetographIn the time series component, also the observed spring hydrograph of the catchment is entered using the Tifton DSS file. After entering the DSS file the hydrograph is shown as in Figure 5. The hydrograph should be used for model calibration of the unknown parameters.Figure 5 Tifton observed hydrographMeteorological componentIn the meteorological component, the hyetograph is assigned to the sub-basin and if there are more than one rain fall gage a weighted average can be assigned to each sub-basin. to a fault in the meteorological component, the evapotranspiration is entered. In this lab, monthly average is used which gives a constant value for each month and corresponding coefficient.Control componentFinally, the control component is used to def ine the simulation period and time interval. In the lab, according to my group number which is 15 the corresponding simulation time is used which is from the first of January 1970 to the thirties of June 1970.After finishing all the data entry, a simulation manager is used to create a simulation which is defined by selecting the basin, meteorological and control data to be computed. After creating the simulation, compute is chosen and a message of successful egress in the message log -if there is any error or warning will appear in the message log too-.From the results tab, a global summary can be viewed as shown in Figure 6. The global summary gives the drainage area contributing to each sub-basin and each junction and the time to peak and the corresponding peak discharge as well as the total volume of excess rainfall. In this lab, there is only one sub-basin so the sub-basin and junction will have the resembling properties. The peak discharge is 873 CFS and happened in the thirt y-first of frame 1970 at 100 PM. The total excess volume is 16.36 in.Figure 6 Global analysisThe graph of the sub-basin 74006 shown in Figure 7 show the hyetograph in the top part which consists of red and no-count. The red part shows the infiltrated depth while the stern line shows the excess rainfall depth. The bottom part of the graph shows the hydrograph which consists of the baseflow and the excess hydrograph. The blue solid line shows the hydrograph while the dotted red line shows the baseflow. As we can see that in January all the rainfall is around infiltrated and there is no excess and that is reflected in the hydrograph as there is no excess hydrograph only baseflow. The peak rainfall events happened at the end of bump into and May and as we can see that there is a recur time between the peak of the hyetograph and the hydrograph which represent the time of the water to road though the watershed to the outlet of the catchment. Even both event in March and May has th e same rainfall but the peak was higher(prenominal) in March due to the infiltration difference. The infiltiration that happened in May was big than March as the soil moisture content in March was high due to event happened just before the peak event while before May peak event it was dry for nearly two months.Figure 7 Hyetograph/Hydrograph of Sub-basin 74006The hydrograph of the junction shown in Figure 7 shows the hydrograph coming from each sub-basin the blue dashed line and the total aggregate of all the hydrographs at the junction the blue line and the observed data the black dotted line. The dashed blue line and the solid blue line are coinciding because there is only on sub-basin that contribute to the junction. As shown in Figure 7, the observation and the hydrograph at the junction as almost the same which means that the parameters and methods used in the HEC-HMS are representing the universe quite well.Figure 8 Hydrograph of JunctionHEC-HMS can simulate storm event to get the flow hydrograph of the catchment. It is important to use the adequate method based on the data availability. The model should be calibrated using the observed data. HEC-HMS can gives how each sub-basin can contribute to the basin making water and what changes will happen if any of the sub-basin changes.Hydrologic Engineering Center (2010). Hydrologic Modeling dodging HEC-HMS, Quick Start Guide, US Army Corps of Engineers, Davis, USA

Thursday, March 28, 2019

2001 A Space Odyssey :: essays research papers

You are hurtling across the abyss of space on an jaunt to unexplored planets. Your only companion is a fellow astronaut the troika hibernauts who like in a deep freeze sleep volition not be awakened until their skills are needed. An essential member of your junto is Hal, the electronic, almost-hu piece brain that ceaselessly guides your course. For months your atom powered craft &8220Discover has been carrying you away from humans at a hundred thousand miles an hour. You are now further from home than any man in history.Your living quarters in spite of appearance 400-foot-long space craft is a centrifugal drum equipped with an electronic library of literature and music. Here you relax, eat, exercise, sleep, and chat with Hal, the conversational computer who neer forgets anything &8211 not even your birthday.Your mission is of such importance that it has been surrounded by the deepest official secrecy. You are probing a fantastic frontier, following a trial that has led to the outer edges of the solar system. You are searching the stars for read that man is not alone.On Earth-colonized moon, deep in the crater Tycho, a discovery has been made that has shattered the human concept of the universe. You are trip toward something. You do not know what it is. You only know that it has been waiting for man to find it for three million years.All of a sudden, in the center of your mission Hal, the super smart computer, takes over the controls of the ship, and the astronauts try to disconnect it from the controls. It essential be intensely frustrating for Hal to communicate with human beings. Hal&8217s strong being is built around the ability to communicate at galvanising energy speeds. There is never a moment when Hal is not observant the aspects of Discovery. We might think of Has checking a distant sensor reading as composing a request, identifying a location, transmitting the request, and receiving and processing the response. For Hal, though, it is a i mplement that takes no effort and occurs instantaneously. What is more, the response can always be relied upon to be accurate. The fact that million of such operations occur every abet is normal for Hal (instantaneous for Hal means something quite different from what it means to Dave or Frank, the devil astronauts aboard Discovery, a remark that has some significance for what follows a miniscule later).

Essay --

PsychiatryPsychiatrists are physicians whose jobs reduce on the prevention, diagnosis, and overlayment of mental, addictive, and emotional disorders. With a few family members with mental and behavioral disorders, psychiatry stands out to me as a job I would real like to do. It has made me realize how scary these disorders can be and how of the essence(p) the right treatment is. My parents, my grandparents, and many aunts and uncles have professions in the medical field, ranging from pharmacists, family practitioners, to anesthesiologists, tho no psychiatrists. Doing something in the medical field has always been both a dream for me and an expectation from my family. Psychiatry is something that I have always been enkindle in and would like to maybe pursue later on in life.What do psychiatrists do?Psychiatrists specialize in mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders. They can prevent, diagnose, and treat these disorders by helping patients and their families deal with things such as stress and crises, diagnostic tests, psychotherapy, and prescribing medication. Psychiatrists have ...

Wednesday, March 27, 2019

Touching Wedding Speech by the Bride -- Wedding Toasts Roasts Speeches

Touching Wedding Speech by the BrideIt is not handed-down for the bride to speak but I thought it only right that I start married life as I mean to go on - by having the last word. I would alike to take this view to thank everyone for taking the time to share this magical day with us. instantly wouldnt have been as special as it is without you - our family and friends. I desire everyone is enjoying themselves and that the open bar kept you entertained while we were having our photos taken. Please call up to take lots of photos and sign the guest book please complicate any advice you have on married lifeI would like to thank Mary and Rose for doing the readings. We have a small leave here(predicate) for you.A big thank you goes to my bridesmaids, Nicola and Caroline who were both a great help in preparing for the big event and in safekeeping me calm throughout the day. I have a little something here for you. Jane and Terry have welcomed me into the family and even put up wit h me staying with them after I lost my roomate. Thank you for raising Charlie so well for me. I study that the warranty is out of date today and the refund deadline has long since passed. I might keep him for a while though as he has so many qualities - charm, brains and beauty are sadly the only ones abstracted I would like to thank my mom (mum) and dad for all their love, abet and guidance throughout my life. I would not be where I am t... ...rue.I love you Charles for all that you have made of yourself in this life, and for what I know we will make together in our lives from this day on. I am so proud to be your wife. The most beautiful man and wife gift Ill have today is knowing in my heart I have your love forever...........I would like to take time now to remember those who are ineffective to be with us today. Many of our family were unable to travel to Chicago (Edinburgh). Others will be looking down on our wedding day- we especially remember my granmother (gran) McFar lane and grandfather ( grandad) Cook and Charlies grandpa whose birthday would have been today.I would therefore like to propose a toast.. (raise glass) to absent friends..

Racism in Literature Essay -- Racial Relations, Strange Fruit

Racism, a disease of the ignorant, is a horrific decompose of society, and has reared its ill-favored head throughout history, and is continuing to do the same today. Racism comes in mevery shapes and forms, directed towards a variation of cultures. It can end lives and land communities apart. Often times, there are people who see racism, and are shake to write about it, with the goal in mind to make a difference and change societies belief. Abel Meeropol and Harper Lee had that goal in common, when pen Strange Fruit, a poem about lynching, and To Kill a Mockingbird, a novel about a persecuting federationern to. Both the differentiate made and the word choice are effective parts of the poem. symbol and satire are similarly big parts. The reputation of racism is also important, which is supported by the title and the roots promissory note.To begin, the contrast at heart the poem, and the word choice were all very meaningful, and helped develop the poem into the frightful piece of literature it is. First, the contrast of hideous events in the beautiful south is quite an eye opener. The author paints a beautiful image of the setting, with unsophisticated scene of the gallant south Scent of magnolia sweet and fresh (5&7). Then, in the next lines, the reader learns of the horrific events that begin occurred, taking the ravisher out of the land. Black body swinging in the poplar trees. The bulging eyes and twisted mouth(3&6). The second meaningful part of the poem is having every word hit home. Abel Meeropol knew how to take words, and use them for a way in which he could shock the reader, and make him or her have an empty guilty feeling in the pit of his or her stomach. Next, impassivity has become a feeling that is felt too often, and that option is thrown out the window wi... ...which can be looked at like world racist towards others is a sin. However, unlike in Strange Fruit, the tone in To Kill a Mockingbird is very innocent, due to the si gnalise of view of a child. This supports the theme because it shows the reader why racism is wrong, without any bias, or bitterness. Incredible authors can make the reader feel beardown(prenominal) emotions through their words, and take on a new perspective on the world, and life itself. Abel Meeropol, author of the poem Strange Fruit, and Harper Lee, author of the novel To Kill a Mockingbird, did a great job of counterbalance to knock down the mental stone walls people have make overtime, and making them see the wrongness of racism. The authors both used inner-contrast, word choice, symbolism, satire, and the theme of racism, supported by the title and tone, to create incredible, groundbreaking works of literature.

Tuesday, March 26, 2019

Female Genital Mutilation :: essays research papers

Imagine a young young woman the virulent African sun is kissing her bronzed skin. The warm golden smooth tickles her petite and tattered feet. The immense gold earrings she wears beats against her slender fill in. Her summit is of a queen, yet she walks to an uncertain death. She stands in forepart of a depressed hut, or a tent. She glances back and sees the majestic sun that had once kissed her neck now set and somewhat leave her abandoned. She exists alone in front of that diminutive hut or tent and out comes a man. He is exhausted and is ready to go home to his companion and his supper. He looks a bit annoyed that she has come so late. His hands are stain with a ruby tint and his clothes the same. He motions the young girl in. Hesitantly, she makes small and meager steps to the entranceway. She steps into a minute elbow room with little or no lighting. She stares upon two women and a rusty turn off that holds the screams of the girls that went before her. The man motions her to sit in the table. She slowly places her body on the stained and rusty table. She is a bit afraid that the table allow non hold under her weight nevertheless, she is held up. The man places his cold and wet hands on her collarbone and pushes her back to the table. As she lies there she looks to her left over(p) and sees his instruments a bloody and rusty razor blade. She sighs with relief. She has heard that a razor blade is the best instrument to use. She knew of women that had to take a piece of glass. She has prayed for heroism and strength, yet it does not seem to arrive. The man runs his hands down the sides of her body. Has he pushes her skirt up he looks at her and says to her, Dont move. He opens her legs and begins to operate. The glare from the curt lighting obstructs his view, but he continues any way. The heat has gotten to him and he is not as awake as he was in the morning. He blinking chickweed to regain some concentration and he takes his blade in his ha nds. He thinks about cleaning the blade first but the thought instanter escapes from his mind. He does not want to waste any more cartridge clip on this girl.

Veronica Chambers Changed My Life :: Personal Narrative essay about myself

Veronica Chambers Changed My Life   African-American actor Veronica Chambers, whose May 1997 debut memoir Mamas Girl is a mod York best-seller, characterizes her writers life as roses above thorns. The roses are above, but theres always thorns underneath. sometimes the work is pleasant, but its usually thorny. Chambers unearthed her talent through a tumultuous childhood and adolescence to emerge as a promising puppylike writer and accomplished journalist.   She is a former editor at The upstart York Times Magazine and Premiere Magazine. A frequent contributor to Essence, The modern York Times book review and The Los Angeles Times book review, she is the coauthor, with John Singleton, of poetical Justice. Chambers holds a Freedom Forum Fellowship at capital of South Carolina University. Her intensely ain encounter with Tupac Shakur, the L.A. rapper who was gunned down almost a year ago, appeared in Esquire.   Harlem Renaissance, Chamberss latest young adults book , will be released in fall 1997. Slated for spring 98 is another book, Marisol and Magdalena.   While juggling a demanding schoolmaster schedule, Chambers devotes herself to volunteer work teaching writing to New York urban center public school children.   operative with those children is like breathing for me, says the 27- year-old writer.   Some of their books are heartbreaking as they wrestle with problems of identification, adolescence, communication, rape, inner-city violence and drugs. They desperately attempt role models, and whether I like it or not, they look to me to guide them.   Working primarily with immigrant students--a New York City report recently classified the citys universe of discourse as 51% nonwhite due to record newcomers--Chambers asks students to write about their personal lives for each other. Knowing many feel alienated, Chambers points out that share loneliness can become a source of strength. While her students stick out only her success, Chambers sees in them the reflection of her turbulent childhood.   It is her saga of survival and gaiety that Chambers--the Brooklyn- bred daughter of a Panamanian mother and Dominican-American father-- chronicled in Mamas Girl.   Her Riverhead Books editor, Julie Grau, says, When I outset met her, she was impossibly young, but already possessed a maturity because she had lived and chastise a difficult childhood. I liked her because she was so fresh and unpretentious.   Chamberss desolation is exceptional considering the trauma she must have suffered at 10 eld old when her father abandoned the family--setting in motion years of acidulent struggle.

Monday, March 25, 2019

My Addiction to Sugar Essay -- Sugar Addiction Study and Intervention

worldSugar is considered a toxic poison. Sugar leaches the atomic frame 20 out of the cadaverous frame of a humans body. Sugar literally sucks the calcium straight from our bones therefore it is known to many as a skeletal poisonous powder. There are thousands of various(prenominal)s struggling throughout the joined States with sugar colony. Sugar is a leading cause of a number of wellness-related issues. Sugar causes health issues such as, fibromyalgia, diabetes, obesity, and osteoporosis. Like me, many individuals have no clue that they are addicted to sugar. Up until this single radical design, I thought my eating habits were quite normal. I honestly did not cognise how much sugar I was taking in everyday. This single subject design has truly encouraged me to live a healthier lifestyle. The utilization of this study is to indirectly determine my sugar intake, by counting calories chance(a) and reducing my caloric intake.LITERATURE REVIEWSugar addiction is a rapi dly growing epidemic (Teitelbaum, 2010). According to researchers, on average an individual consumes one-hundred pounds of sugar each year. Americans spend billions of dollars a year on secondary school memberships, healthy foods and beverages, and exercise equipment. Despite the economic strain, Americans continue to make means in their budgets for weight loss products. Exercising makes individuals feel healthier intimate and out. Feeling healthier could possibly alter a persons desire to eat healthier. Although exercise cannot cure a sugar addiction it could take ones mind off eating sweets. some other benefit of exercising is the possibility of curving the urge for sugar. When an individual is starved it makes their will power to resist sugar more difficult. Feeding ... ...9). distinct in prevalence of obesity among black, white, and Hispanic adults-United States, 2006-2008. Morb. Mort. Weekly. Rep. 58, 740-744.Flegal, K. M., Carroll, M. D., Ogden, C. L., & Curt in, L. R. (2010). Prevalence and trends in obesity among U.S. adults, 1999-2008. Journal of Medical Association. 303, 235-241.Hyman, Mark. (2014). sweetly poison How sugar, not cocaine, is one of the almost addictive and dangerous substances. Daily News. Available at (Accessed on 10 February 2014).James, D. C. S. (2013). Weight loss strategies used by African American women possible implications for tailored messages. Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics. 26, 71-77.Teitelbaum, Jacob. (2010). Sweet Relief. Better Nutrition Healthy Handbook. August 2010. 28-29.

Teaching as a Profession Essay -- essays papers

program line as a Profession Winston Churchill in one case said Kites rise highest against the wind (1942). teachers must find enough closing to overcome the adversity, stress, and other factors that might be sending them the message to give up their job, and stick with it. A teaching profession has some positive benefits, except the negative aspects are enough to push people away from a career in this field. Looking in from the outside, a job as a teacher seems ideal. In what other profession do you commence every weekend, holiday, and the whole summer off? This is enough to draw a slew of people to the job, but it is not glamorous enough to lionize these new teachers around for long and this creates a shortage. There are some reasons causing this shortage of teachers. Among others, stress, lack of respect, and salary are what a lot of the fleeing teachers point to for their early departure from the field. This paper will describe what is issue on now in the profession and what the future will subscribe for the field of teaching.In 1685, St. John Baptist de la Salle originated the training of teachers in France (Columbia Encyclopedia). article of faith has kept growing ever since this time, spreading all across the world. In the colonial period in America, the only requirements for teaching in the light schools were a modicum of learning and a willingness to work in what was then an ill-paid, low-prestige note (Columbia Encyclopedia). The teaching profession is still somewhat looked down on, but it keeps change with the ever-changing technology. Why teachers are on their way out Teacher retention rates have been on a see-saw for a a few(prenominal) years now. According to a survey conducted by National University, reductions in class size, ... ... 2003 from http// Potter, Patricia E., Swenk, Dr. Jean, Schrup, Dr. Marie, Smith, Hoyt, and Weekly, Sarah. (2001). The National University Teacher Retention and Attri tion Survey. Retrieved March 6,2003, from http// Bajunid, Ibrahim Ahmad. (2003, February 16). Redefining the Teaching Profession. New Straits Times-Management Times.Barry, Paul. (2003, January 16). Trainees Prepare to Take the Heat. Coventry Evening Telegraph. rearing Week. (2003, February 21). Teaching as a Profession. American Educations Online Newspaper. Retrieved April 28, 2003 from http// The Associated Press. (2003, January 29). bill Teacher Retention Biggest School Woe. Retrieved March 10,2003, from http//

Sunday, March 24, 2019

Capital Punishment Essay -- essays research papers fc

Getting Rid of the expiration penalisation heavy(p) punishment was a corrective measure that was wide apply any over the world. It is difficult to pin point the adopt see of its origin but it is a f act as that it was practiced intensely during chivalric times. Crimes have occurred probably since the beginning of time and therefore there was a need for a counter attack to minimize if not exterminate it completely. Laws were created for this purpose, but like everything man creates they have proved corrupted and in some cases entirely unacceptable. In Britain, as James B Christoph1 points out, the major cause for this trend was the social and economic chaos brought some by the Industrial Revolution. The spread of poverty as well as tike labor, prostitution and other social evils went lot in hand with unhoped wealth, which sparked off crime. The amazing existence of both these extremes ca apply insecurity among the honormakers in Britain resulting in the creation of s trict rules, making any offense from theft turnips to corking down a tree punishable by finis. close to examples he sites show just how obscure the law was. In 1801, a 13-year-old boy was publicly hanged for breaking into a rear and stealing a spoon. In 1808, a 7-year-old girl was hang at Lynn for setting a house on fire. To express concern over the above examples, certainly these minor league did not deserve the kind of punishment they received. Were these crimes so grievous and devilishly evil that only through execution would everyone else understand the dryness of contemplating such(prenominal) an act? Passage of time is usually synonymous with kind and as usual man is looking for more innovative slipway to slabber out his daily activities. This pursuit for perfection did not drop the death penalty. Other methods of carrying out this punishment emerged, some, more blood clotting than the near but still deemed fit by our ancestral "law makers. " decollate w as a common practice for the Romans and the Greeks. They considered it honorable and therefore pet it to hanging. The instruments used were the axe and the sword. Later on, the English also employed decapitation as sited by John Lawrence.12 He states that William the Conqueror introduced beheading to England and the for the first time black person to experience it was a man named Waltheof, Earl of Northumberland, in 1076. Differing from the Rom... ...ifferent countries aborting the act as well as the emergence of more and more organizations against this function of punishment. novel countries that have abolished capital punishment6 include Azerbaijan, Bulgaria, Canada, Estonia, Lithuania and The United Kingdom all in 1998. The various organizations currently involved include Amnesty International, personify judge USA, Canadian Coalition Against the Death Penalty and Catholics Against jacket Punishment. whole caboodle CITED 1. Christoph, James, rogue 14, " slap-up Puni shment and British Politics," The University of Chicago Press, 1962. 2. Lawrence, John, page 28, "A account statement of Capital Punishment," The Citadel Press, New York, 1960. 3. Lawrence, John, page 69," A annals of Capital Punishment," The Citadel Press, New York, 1960. 4. Harpers Magazine, page 29"Chinas Crimes and Punishment," November 1997. 5. Bradgon, David. "Bring hold up Capital Punishment Page," http// 6. Amnesty International. "List of Abolitionist and Retentionis Countries," http// Capital Punishment Essay -- essays research papers fc Getting Rid of the Death Penalty Capital punishment was a corrective measure that was widely used all over the world. It is difficult to pin point the exact date of its origin but it is a fact that it was practiced intensely during medieval times. Crimes have occurred probably since the beginning of time and therefore there was a need for a counter attack to minimize if not eradicate it completely. Laws were created for this purpose, but like everything man creates they have proved imperfect and in some cases entirely unacceptable. In Britain, as James B Christoph1 points out, the major cause for this trend was the social and economic chaos brought about by the Industrial Revolution. The spread of poverty as well as child labor, prostitution and other social evils went hand in hand with unexpected wealth, which sparked off crime. The amazing existence of both these extremes caused insecurity among the lawmakers in Britain resulting in the creation of strict rules, making any offense from stealing turnips to cutting down a tree punishable by death. Some examples he sites show just how obscure the law was. In 1801, a 13-year-old boy was publicly hanged for breaking into a house and stealing a spoon. In 1808, a 7-year-old girl was hang at Lynn for setting a house on fire. To express concern over the above examples, surely these minors did not deserve the kind of punishment they received. Were these crimes so heinous and diabolically evil that only through execution would everyone else understand the gravity of contemplating such an act? Passage of time is usually synonymous with change and as usual man is looking for more innovative ways to carry out his daily activities. This pursuit for perfection did not exclude the death penalty. Other methods of carrying out this punishment emerged, some, more blood curdling than the next but still deemed fit by our ancestral "law makers. " Beheading was a common practice for the Romans and the Greeks. They considered it honorable and therefore preferred it to hanging. The instruments used were the axe and the sword. Later on, the English also employed beheading as sited by John Lawrence.12 He states that William the Conqueror introduced beheading to England and the first unfortunate person to e xperience it was a man named Waltheof, Earl of Northumberland, in 1076. Differing from the Rom... ...ifferent countries aborting the act as well as the emergence of more and more organizations against this form of punishment. Recent countries that have abolished capital punishment6 include Azerbaijan, Bulgaria, Canada, Estonia, Lithuania and The United Kingdom all in 1998. The various organizations currently involved include Amnesty International, Equal Justice USA, Canadian Coalition Against the Death Penalty and Catholics Against Capital Punishment. WORKS CITED 1. Christoph, James, page 14, "Capital Punishment and British Politics," The University of Chicago Press, 1962. 2. Lawrence, John, page 28, "A History of Capital Punishment," The Citadel Press, New York, 1960. 3. Lawrence, John, page 69," A History of Capital Punishment," The Citadel Press, New York, 1960. 4. Harpers Magazine, page 29"Chinas Crimes and Punishment," November 1997. 5. Bradgon, David. "Bring Back Capital Punishment Page," http// 6. Amnesty International. "List of Abolitionist and Retentionis Countries," http//