Saturday, July 20, 2019

Poes The Cask of Amontillado: A Psychological Analysis of Characters

Poe's The Cask of Amontillado: A Psychological Analysis of Characters Widely regarded as E. A. Poe's finest story, "The Cask of Amontillado" depicts a deed so horrific that for many it defines evil. Edmund Clarence Stedman said of Poe's writings: "He strove by a kind of divination to put his hand upon the links of mind and matter, and reach the hiding-places of the soul". Even though 20th century theories of psychology would not be formulated until many years after Poe's death, he nevertheless delved into the realm of abnormal psychology instinctively and perhaps never with a more terrifying outcome than in the character of Montressor, a man so bent upon revenge that he walls his enemy up in a crypt and leaves him to die. Is Montressor a madman, or is he evil personified? Is Fortunato merely the unfortunate victim of a deranged murderer, or did he entice Montressor to commit the deed? By applying 20th century psychological guidelines, one can speculate that Montressor is not insane per se but is afflicted with a malignant narcissistic disorder which, w hen aggravated by Fortunato's egotism and naivetà ©, drives him to commit his violent act. Fortunato is depicted from the outset of the tale as arrogant and egotistical. Montressor begins his narration by saying, "The thousand injuries of Fortunato I had borne as best I could, but when he ventured upon insult I vowed revenge" (240). Though the exact nature of the insult is not made known, there are numerous examples of subtle slights by Fortunato throughout the narrative. Perhaps Fortunato is unaware that his comments are frequently demeaning but his remarks make him seem arrogant and uncaring. Early in the story, he indicates his belief that Montressor is not a true connoiss... ...y points to a mental disorder but is not indicative of insanity as we define it. Did Fortunato's perceived insults drive Montressor to commit his crime? Perhaps they did, or perhaps Montressor needed little incentive. However, one thing is certain. If evil can be defined as the death or absence of a soul, then to look upon Montressor must surely be to glimpse the very face of evil. Works Cited Goode, Erica. "Stalin to Saddam: So Much for the Madman Theory." New York Times 4 May 2003: pg. 4.5. Poe, Edgar Allan. "The Cask of Amontillado." Reading and Writing about Literature. Phillip Sipiora. New Jersey: Pearson Education, 2002. 240-244. Stedman, Edmund Clarence. Scribner's Monthly, Vol. XX, May-Oct. 1880, pp. 107-124. Reprinted in Nineteenth-Century Literature Criticism, Vol. 16. GALILEO. . Yen, Duen Hsi. "Shame." 23 May 1997. Noogenesis. 4 Mar. 2004 .

Friday, July 19, 2019

Internet As An Educational Tool :: Technology Computers Learning Papers

Internet As An Educational Tool According to Bookshelf 98, Reference Library, technology is defined as, â€Å"the application of science, especially to industrial or commercial objectives.† It further defines technology as, â€Å"the scientific method and material used to achieve a commercial or industrial objective.† What does all these mean to me? All of these words such as scientific method, commercial, and industrial objective do not seem to have significance in my life. I always treated technologies as something foreign that it really does not have any relationship with me. Up until couple of years ago, I didn’t even know how to get on the Internet. Yes, I heard people bragging about how wonderful Internet was. However, I did not know the amount of information you can get through the Internet. I could not imagine. All I saw was TV size machine. I actually started to browse through the Internet out of frustration. Whenever I asked questions about getting certain information, majority of the people advised me to get on the Internet to get the information. So I started to use Internet. Wow! Have I missed the luxury of using the Internet all these times? Since then, I use Internet to do my assignments or study. I found out that using an Internet saves me time to get information that I needed. Moreover, it gives me the information I was looking for with minimal failure. Now, I rely heavily on Internet to get resources and information. What do I do when people ask me questions? I tell them to get on the Internet. The Internet also has changed my life style; I now seldom write to my friends, instead I send emails to them, I do not go to store to shop but I buy things through the Internet. The Internet virtually covers every category that relate to our daily life such as news, media, health, government and many more. Now, the Internet is the first place I look for any information whether it’s the direction to get to the places or making the hotel reservation. Even though, I use the Internet as my searching tool for information and use it as often as I needed, there still are many areas that I haven’t been exposed to. One of the areas is the education. As a person who wants to pursue the career goal to become a teacher, I thought it would be beneficial to research the websites that are related to education.

Socio and Economic Factors in Global Business Essay -- GCSE Business M

Socio and Economic Factors in Global Business When a company decides to take their business international, there are many different sociological and economic factors that they need to take into account. There are differences in management styles, international laws and treaties that regulate international business, as well as cultural customs that come into play. Each of these are significant and needs to be taken into account in order to minimize potential problems. Many times, lack of knowledge can create serious problems. Although there are a myriad of socio- and economic factors, this paper will focus on three key ones: 1) political barriers; 2) labor practices; and 3) cultural barriers. Additionally, real world examples will be offered on how some businesses have successfully overcome these barriers. Political Barriers For purposes of this discussion, political barriers refer to the geo-political situation of a country, as well legal barriers such as tariffs, taxes, etc. Countries set up barriers to foreign entities conducting business within their borders (especially imports and exports) for several reasons. Duties and taxes can create some government revenue. If there is a high tariff then there will be less exporting, therefore more of that product in the country, thus making the price of that product in the country lower since there will be a greater supply. So trade barriers can be helpful to a country. On the contrary, trade barriers can have a negative effect on a country as well. Consumers will have to pay a higher price on imports, and for similar products produced in the country the price will rise due to consumers buying the imported products. In order to regulate the barriers on international trade, there have been organizations formed. GATT (General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade), W TO (World Trade Organization) and NAFTA (North American Free Trade Agreement) are just a few examples (Czinkota, 1999). Other considerations in overcoming political barriers are the governments themselves. Conducting business in Cuba is virtually impossible for American companies probably until the fall of the Castro regime. Domestic and international pressure on human rights, governments considered to be corrupt or "illegal" may also hamper an organization’s ability to do business in certain regions of the globe. Although these factors... ...zed crime, etc (Fortune Small Business, 2000). Conclusion This discussion has highlighted but a few socio- and economic factors that must be considered when deciding to conduct business in a foreign country. As one can demise, the risks are there, but the potential for profit is very alluring. With prior proper planning, the risks can be limited. However, it will serve businesses well to incorporate economic factors into their overall global business strategies. References Czinkota, M., Ronkeinen, I., Moffett, M. (1999) International Business. Fort Worth: The Dryden Press DSN Retailing Today (2001, June 5). Open trade in billion-man market creates empire of opportunity. Economist (1997, June 21). 99% perspiration. Vol. 43, Issue 8022. Fortune Small Business (2000, April). East meets Mex. Hofstede, G. (1984). Culture’s Consequences. Beverly Hills, Ca: Sage Publications. Orange County Business Journal (2001, April 23). OC companies do business in China over tea, gestures. Winter, D. (May 2000). Facing globalization. Ward’s Auto World. Vol. 36, Issue 5. (www.doc.gov) (www.opic.gov) (www.usatrade.gov)

Thursday, July 18, 2019

Food and Agricultural challenges Essay

â€Å" Food is our body’s fuel and without fuel it will be shut down† Food is indeed the elixir of life. Food, presently, has become one amongst the most common and imperative needs of a living being along with shelter and clothing. In other words, it has befallen to be one of the most common needs of a living being. As people improved their standard of living, they resort to newer trend in food too. Food is now a factor that decides the status of a person. . When did the quest for food really begin ? It is unanswerable. Probably, it may be since the emergence of the early man. The early man ate fruits and threw their seeds off. When they saw the seeds germinate into plants, they decided to start agriculture which at that time was just to raise seeds. This, happened about thousands of years ago and agriculture that took birth. As a result, this brought about great changes in the socio – economic condition of the Homo sapiens. It was one of the most remarkable incidents in the history of human being. Thus, began the quest for food via agriculture. Generation by generation, modern technologies and modern methods were evolved. Today, we have the most sophisticated technologies for better food production. Agriculture was the key development in the rise of sedentary human civilization, whereby farming of domesticated species created surpluses of various resources that nurtured the development of civilization and so was food. The human found food to be a component that kept them healthy, free from diseases, energetic and intelligent. They discovered that it helped in the growth and development of all living beings. Eventually, they found a lot more needs for food. Consequently, more and more people began to indulge in agriculture and thereby increase the production to meet the needs of rapidly growing population. Very soon, various branches of agriculture evolved like the horticulture [ art and science of growing fruits, flowers and ornamental plants ], animal husbandry 1 As years passed, the population grew tremendously. The people moved towards the assistance of technology to augment their production as human effort alone could not meet the needs of food to feed the entire population. As the technological assistance helped farmers produce a considerably good yield from a limited portion of land, more and more land got occupied by industries and other factories. Farming began to be considered as a below average job and youth got recruitment in industries. The arena of agriculture got faded as they were able to produce the enough food from the available land resources. The present day poverty and hunger are mainly due to the neglect of agriculture. Unless, agriculture is to be considered as a white collar job, we are no longer going to get rid of these dreadful hitches. It is high time to reconsider the potentials of agriculture, which supports the majority of the population. The situation has come that we have to promote sustainable agriculture. Sustainable agriculture involves the successful management of agricultural resources to satisfy human needs while maintaining or enhancing environmental quality and conserving natural resources for future generations. By the year 2015, the world population is forecast to reach about 9 billion people – about one third greater than that of today. Therefore, there is greater demand for agriculture and thereby food production too. When we speak about food production and food consumption, it is necessarily important that we must know its present trends . . . . . . II. Objectives and Methodology : The following are the objectives of our research : We accomplished our research mainly to satisfy the following rationales : To be acquainted with the present day food production and consumption trends of people To learn about the latest technologies involved in the food and agriculture systems To study the various somber and solemn problems faced by our farmers / agriculturists 2 To discover solutions to their problems To give an awareness to the public about the importance of agriculture in this highly competitive and technological world To encourage youth to get into the field of agriculture To try to bring a respectful position for the farmers / agriculturists in the society Selection of students for Young Scientists Programme : We were selected by means of three selection rounds namely: 1. Poster presentation 2. Project report presentation 3. Model Demonstration Soon after the three selection processes, 55 students were crowned as the Young Scientists. We were divided into five teams and we, the Maroon team members were provided with the theme topic: â€Å"Food production and Food consumption†. The topic was further divided into sub – topics and they were distributed to our team members. We conducted reference works and researches on the given topics and for further clarifications and to make the other team mates aware of each research topic, we had team meets where in we were supposed to have effective discussion. Thus, each and every candidate of our team was accessed to the required information about the research topic. We even had field visits like the visit to the Sundaram Organic Farm, the Horticulture Research Station, SKM Egg Products India Private Limited etc which inculcated in us more knowledge about our theme topic. We worked as a team, as a family . . . . . 3 III. Food Production and Consumption trends in India i. Food production trends : World population has increased over the past 10 years by 760 million or more, which is equal to adding the combined population of Africa and South America. By 2025 it is expected that global population is expected to reach around 9Billion. Food has to be produced in colossal quantities to feed the entire population. Food production/capita has declined since 1971 in the world. Here, arises the problem of food production. The food grain obsolete technology ,more pests &diseases urbanization& (migration of rural labourers to urban),high labour cost, government agro policy being poor & unfocussed. The food production trends have changed so widely since the Egyptian civilization. Egyptians found that agriculture can prosper only with good water supply / irrigation. Nile river condition was studied & river water irrigation was effectively planned & made use of.. The production trend even varies with respect to culture, traditional aspects, customary aspects and the area under cultivation. The productions trend widely varies from country to country, state to state, district to district and even between communities. As a result, there arose a problem of insufficient production. ii. Green Revolution : In the 1970,s the food crisis was one of the major problems in our country as in many other countries. India was on its path to darkness. Lots of people died due to starvation and millions were still starving. The Central Food minister of that time, C.Subrahmaniam took initiative to find a solution to this deadly problem and the solution was later termed as Green Revolution. The introduction of high-yielding varieties of seeds and the increased use of fertilizers and better irrigation are known collectively as the Green Revolution, which provided the increase in production needed to make India self-sufficient in food grains.( thus improving agriculture in India.) Hybrid high-yielding wheat was first introduced to India in 1963 by Dr. Borlaug. Production of wheat was very good making India self sufficient in food. 4 Along with high yielding seeds and irrigation facilities, the enthusiasm of farmers mobilized the idea of agricultural revolution and is also credited to M. S. Swaminathan and his team for having contributed towards the success of green revolution. As a result of this, the agriculture production in India saw great heights. Moreover, Green Revolution also brought about various technological reforms. iii. Technological Development: Various scientific and technological methods for increasing food production were evolved as a result of Green Revolution: mechanization, effective irrigation, use of fertilizers, control of weeds, pests and insects, new varieties of farm animals or high-yielding strains of grain, land reclamation, soil conservation, river basin development, adequate storage facilities, infrastructure development etc . . . are some of the technologies.. As India saw development in the later ages, even the technologies got improved. India also experienced the establishments of agricultural structures like check dams, water shed tanks, rain water harvesting pits etc . . . which ensured better agricultural production.. Technology is just changing the way that human beings operate the machines from the previous ones, & implements to be more precise and less wasteful in the use of fuel, seed, or fertilizer. In the foreseeable future, some agricultural machines will be capable of driving themselves, using GPS maps and electronic sensors. Even more esoteric are the new areas of nanotechnology and genetic engineering, where submicroscopic devices and biological processes, respectively, are being used as machines to perform agricultural tasks in unusual new ways. The future will also see the application of healthy hybrid varieties, GMO crops that are hale and hearty, organic methods that produces greater output, better irrigation systems etc . . As every good thing has an appalling visage, these technologies too had some advantages and disadvantages. iv. Advantages of Modern Technologies: It was successful in meeting a growing demand for food by the world’s population. Yields of primary crops such as rice and wheat increased dramatically. The price of food declined, the rate of increase in crop yields generally keeps pace with population growth, and the number of people who go hungry to bed was slightly reduced 5 The boost in food production has been due mainly to scientific advances and new technologies, including the development of new crop varieties The use of pesticides and fertilizers, and the construction of large irrigation systems helped the farmers increase their production It reduces time cosumption as it ensures effective management of crops in a shorter period of time Disadvantages of modern technologies : Increased chances of unemployment [ as technological equipments can do the work of 50 – 100 labours] Evidence indicates, however, that excessive reliance on monoculture farming and agro industrial inputs, such as capital-intensive technology, pesticides, and chemical fertilizers, has negatively impacted the environment and rural society. A number of â€Å"ecological diseases† have been associated with the intensification of food production by means of latest technological methods Chemical fertilizers can also become air pollutants, and have recently been implicated in the destruction of the ozone layer and in global warming Excessive use of technological equipments has also been linked to the acidification/salinization of soils and to a higher incidence of insect pests and diseases through mediation of negative nutritional changes in crop plants Most of the present day technologies are prone to causing pollution [ land, water and air ] v. Food consumption trends: The agriculture and food sector figures prominently in this enterprise and must be given due importance in any consideration of the promotion of healthy diets for individuals and population groups. Food strategies must not merely be directed at ensuring food security for all, but must also achieve the consumption of adequate quantities of safe and good quality foods that together make up a healthy diet. Any recommendation to that effect will have implications for all components in the food chain. It is therefore useful at this juncture to examine trends in consumption patterns worldwide and deliberate on the potential of the food and agriculture sector to meet the demands and challenges of the future. The food consumption trends in the ancient period were governed by the Hindu and Jain beliefs. As a result of this, Vegetarianism was the most prominent system during the ancient days. It was also partly under the surveillance of the Delhi and Mughal dynasties. Later, towards the medieval period, people learned to consume what is needed and preserve the rest so that they could use them during periods of starvation. Therefore, the trend of the medieval period turned to be limited consumption. Presently, in the modern era, the consumption trends cannot be defined because people consume food not only for health but for various other reasons too. The consumption trends of the majority of the population are also controlled by advertisements. The consumption trends are partly hereditary too. Most importantly, the consumption trends of the present day people are mainly to showcase their status. For example, the ones who consume rich food are given higher positions in the society and the rest are treated with lower dignity in the society. In short, the food consumption trends unlike food production trends vary even from person to person. With respect to each food item, the consumption trend varies widely. The kilograms in which the food items are consumed determine the demand for the specific item thereby, expressing the trend of food consumption. From this, the consumption trends of the present day human society [ India ] are lucid and patent. 7 vi. Country – Country variations : The food consumption trend of the people varies from country to country. Changes in agricultural practice over the past 50 years have increased the world’s capacity to provide food for its people through increases in productivity, greater diversity of foods and less seasonal dependence. Food availability has also increased as a consequence of rising income levels and falling food prices. This has resulted in considerable changes in food consumption over the past 50 years in all the corners of the world i.e. from country to country. Global and regional per capita food consumption (kcal per capita per day) Region 8 For instance, the consumption trends in India is as follows ( it is extremely different from that of USA which ranks 1st ) : vii. Link between Production and Consumption: To meet the forecasted consumption rates of the entire population of different countries, great attention has to be laid on food production. The food consumption trends depend on the mode of food production. If the food produces is sufficient to feed the population, then the people can adopt their own consumption trend while if it is not, then the people will have to change the mode of consumption in a way that will satisfy the entire population. Thus, the link between the food production and consumption is tightly bound and will need great attention in the future when the population will be high and the food produced will not be sufficient to feed the entire population. If it is obligatory to ensure a safe and sound future, then it is equally significant to bring stability and steadiness in the food production and consumption trends of today. The present day situation of the world cannot be understood. The farmer who is producing the food cannot fix the rate of the food and the consumer who is consuming the food is also not able to fix the rate ! ! Is the present day food production and consumption: producer controlled, consumer controlled or trader controlled ? – – Combination of all the three . . . . V. Production, Procurement and Distribution constraints : However, despite all these trends in food production and consumption, there are certain dilemma and constraints with respect to production, procurement and distribution that have to be given more attention. i. Food production constraints: Improvement solutions are to be resorted by tackling together the problems associated with population growth and food production. A review of the problems of rapid population growth and declining food production and suggestions for resolution are given. World population has increased over the past 10 years by 760 million. Future increases are expected to bring total population to 9 billion by the year 2014 and 16 billion in 2025 (exponential increases). Food production/capita has declined since 1971 in the world in the recent past. The food production problem is technical, environmental, social, political, and economic. Food grain production in India(2009-2010) : 234Mn tonnes Per capita food grain produced: 193Kg/year Food grain production growth (in phase with population growth) : 5.5Mn tonnes/year Suggestions for increasing the food grain production : irrigation, use of fertilizers, &use of Botanical Pesticides control of weeds and insects, new varieties of farm animals or high-yielding strains of grain, land reclamation, mechanization soil conservation, ,Most Efficient water management river basin development, adequate storage facilities, infrastructure development, Birth control. Crop rotation, Organic farming, Mixed cropping Co-operate farming (supply ,operation &maintenance of agricultural machinery equipments) Few Environmental problems which need urgent attention.: soil erosion from mechanization, accumulation of DDT in food and water and animal life from pesticide use, and Water pollution from chemical fertilizers. Increased frequency & intensity of drought &flooding Climate change affects Rice &wheat production New pattern of pests &diseases Food production can be increased with more ecologically sound practices. Information about weather and weather forecasting allows for more suitable land management. Shifting cultivation and land tenure systems should involve conservation farming techniques. Organic manures and appropriate use of chemical fertilizers can raise soil fertility. Even if the production becomes stable, there lies a lot of problems in the next stage – procurement. ii. Urban Market Facilities and Management Public markets have burned down throughout the world over the last few years because of inadequate structures and maintenance, poor management, fire-hazard practices †¦ or to force traders into new markets. These blows to the local economy have important financial implications for small traders and entrepreneurs as well as consumers. Existing market spaces and facilities are often insufficient in developing countries and countries in transition. Consequently, many food traders occupy roads around markets. Urban markets are usually seen as a source of revenue to local town coffers, but those funds are often not reinvested in infrastructure maintenance and better services. This leads to traders feeling that market taxes are not justified and to unrest when rates are increased. Cold-storage facilities are usually insufficient and rent is often high. The few cold-storage rooms built by market managers are often inefficient,. Perishable food products, therefore, deteriorate rapidly.Public markets lack professional management and its continuity. Market authorities have insufficient skilled personnel and are unable to enforce regulations. Consequently, trading in public markets becomes more difficult and, therefore, costly. 11 iii. Food Retailing With respect to procurement and distribution, food retailing and food retail markets can be of great assistance in the modern era though it has not become more effective in India.Middle and high-income consumers shop at supermarkets while low-income consumers, who can spend as much as 80 percent of their income on food, go to local shops, to market places near their homes or buy from street vendors. Public retail markets have not expanded rapidly enough in newly urbanized areas and existing markets have been unable to accommodate the increasing number of retailers. Lack of space or new market opportunities in satellite city districts are thus the cause of spontaneous markets which fill an important gap in the distribution chain. However, their unplanned nature may create traffic, health and environmental problems. iv. Urban Markets: Hygiene, Health, Security and the Environment Since there is lack of private investments and public contribution, the markets of India lack hygiene, health and other basic requirements. Though, the government has taken effective measures, there is no much development in this situation. Market authorities usually guarantee cleaning inside the markets, but this is rarely adequate. Toilet facilities are rare and seldom properly cleaned. Water points, drainage and sewage are usually insufficient. Inadequate lighting in markets exposes users to additional risks and increases the likelihood of theft. The precarious hygiene conditions of established and spontaneous markets, the increasing quantities of waste, and the growing number of Lorries required for food transport, have an adverse impact on the environment, as they pollute air and water, increase noise and threaten public health. v. Public Distribution System (PDS) Public Distribution System (PDS) is an Indian food security system. Established by the Government of India under Ministry of Consumer Affairs, Food, and Public Distribution and managed jointly with state governments in India, it distributes subsidized food and non-food items to India’s poor. 12 Major commodities distributed include staple food grains, such as wheat, rice, sugar, and kerosene, through a network of Public distribution shops, also known as Ration shops established in several states across the country. Food Corporation of India, a Government-owned corporation, procures and maintains the Public Distribution System. In terms of both coverage and public expenditure, it is considered to be the most important food security network. However, the food grains supplied by the ration shops are not enough to meet the consumption needs of the poor or are of inferior quality. The average level of consumption of PDS grains in India is only 1 kg per person / month. The PDS has been criticized for its urban bias and its failure to serve the poorer sections of the population effectively. The targeted PDS is costly and gives rise to much corruption in the process of extricating the poor from those who are less needy. Today, India has the largest stock of grain in the world besides China, the government spends Rs. 750 billion ($13.6 billion) per year, almost 1 percent of GDP, yet 21% remain undernourished. Distribution of food grains to poor people throughout the country is managed by state governments. As of date there are about 4.99 lakh Fair Price Shops (FPS) across India. The food distribution in India is not effective. It has lot of drawbacks when compared to the distribution systems of the developed countries. The food distribution system in India is as follows : 13 VI. Food Wastage : i. Food Wastage – an introduction : Food waste or food loss is the food that is discarded or lost, uneaten. As of 2011, billion tons of food, about one third of the global food production, is lost or wasted annually. Loss and wastage occurs on all steps in the food supply chain. In low-income countries, most loss occurs during production, while in developed countries much food – about 100 kilograms (220 lb) per person and year – is wasted at the consumption stage. In terms of production, the food wastage may occur in various stages. Research found that food grain waste occurs mainly in the beginning of production, transportation & distribution, storage system, preparation food,(cooking), serving & after consumption(throwing away the unconsumed)From planting, crops can be subjected to pest infestations and severe weather, which cause losses before the harvest part of a crop. In India, the wastage in food grain &cooked food is intolerably high.. Some of the major causes of this food wastage are improper storage facilities, lack of effective transport systems, lack of refrigerated transport vehicles, ill – maintained roads, attack of pests and rodents, lack of initiative of the public, lack of awareness, insufficient technological assistance, lack of preservation techniques and a lot more . . . . The food wastage problem of today’s India needs immediate attention and has to be paid more attention to ensure minimal wastage in the coming years. ii. Management of Food waste Reduction A quantity of wheat required by the entire production of Australia is wasted each year in India, according to a new report on global food wastage. At least 40% of all fruit and vegetables are lost in India between the grower and consumer due to lack of refrigerated transport, poor roads, inclement weather and corruption. Therefore, the best way to get rid of wastes is to minimize the wastage by ourselves. However, some of the waste reduction management techniques are given below: The feeding of food scraps to animals is, historically, the most common way of dealing with household food waste Vermi composting is the practice of feeding scraps [ food waste ] to worms who produce soil as a byproduct food waste can be dumped, but it can also be fed to animals, or it can be biodegraded by composting or anaerobic digestion, and reused to enrich soil Food waste coming through the sanitary sewers from garbage disposal units is treated along with other sewage and contributes to sludge which in turn is used in biogas plants In any function, food is to be served to the requirement Moreover food waste can also be recycled to produce various substances like paper, packaging material etc.. . Campaigns and awareness programmes like LOVE FOOD, HATE WASTE must be encouraged so as to make the public aware of the importance of food and the consequences of wasting food. Let us join hands to foresee a world that doesn’t waste food. VII. Food preservation and Food Packaging i. Food preservation – a brief overview Preservation usually involves preventing the growth of bacteria, fungi (such as yeasts), and other micro-organisms (although some methods work by introducing benign bacteria, or fungi to the food), as well as retarding the oxidation of fats which cause rancidity. Food preservation can also include processes which inhibit visual deterioration, such as the enzymatic browning reaction in apples after they are cut, which can occur during food preparation. Many processes designed to preserve food will involve a number of food preservation methods. Preserving fruit by turning it into jam, and sealing within an airtight jar (to prevent recontamination). There are many traditional methods of preserving food that limit the energy inputs and reduce carbon footprint. Maintaining or creating nutritional value, texture and flavour is an important aspect of food preservation, although, historically, some methods drastically altered the character of the food being preserved. ii. Principles of Food preservation: Preservation of a variety of food items, whatever the method maybe, is based on the following principles : 15 Prevention or Delay of Microbial Decomposition of food a. By keeping out micro – organisms [ asepsis ] b. By removal of micro – organisms by means of filtration c. By hindering their growth and activity through Drying methods Addition of chemicals [not recommended] Prevention or Delay of Self Decomposition of food a. Destruction of food enzymes b. Inactivation of food enzymes Thus, it is concluded that the main aim of food preservation is to inhibit either the microbial or self decomposition of food items. Food preservation involves the application of various methods that work on these principles. iii. Food Preservation Methods: There are various methods that can be applied over food items for its long term preservation. The main aim of food preservation is to increase the shelf life of the food item subjected to these preservation methods. However, a food item cannot undergo all the preservation techniques. The technique for each item is chosen with respect to the pH of the food and various other chemical factors. Some of the most accomplished food preservation techniques are: Refrigeration Vacuum packing Salting or Curing Smoking Adding food additives iv. Food packaging Packaging: The word ‘PACKAGING’ means to cover the physical property of a material to prevent it from its enemies. 16 Food packaging: Food packaging means to pack the food to prevent it from enemies, decaying and microbes. Food packaging can be done to food items with the help of packaging materials. Most of the food items are specific to certain materials and it is decided with attention to their chemical and physical properties. Types of food packaging materials: v. Value Addition: Value added agriculture is a process of increasing the economic value and consumer appeal of an agricultural commodity. It is a production/marketing strategy driven by customer needs and preferences. â€Å"Value – added† is used to characterize food products that are converted from raw product through processes that give the resulting product an â€Å"incremental value† in the market place. An â€Å"incremental value† is realized from either higher price or expanded market. For example, jams, cheeses, and pre – cooked meats are considered â€Å"value – added† products. Importance of value added products: Financial benefit – A value added agricultural product may have more market value than any other commodity Helps meet the changing preferences and interests of the public Possesses better quality, nutrition, convenience, safety, health, variety, price, social and environmental acceptance etc . . . Value – addition has become one of the major trends in the field of agriculture. It has brought about great changes in the mode of consumption of the public. Despite all these technologies, there are certain problems faced by the farmers and agriculturists. VIII. Problems faced by Agriculturists and Farmers : i. Major problems faced by Agriculturists and Farmers : The major problems confronting Indian agriculture are those of population pressure, small holdings, depleted soils, lack of modern technology and poor (quality and numbers) facilities for storage. Population pressure: Population increase & hence dwelling area are needed more .Therefore the area for cultivation becomes decreased. In country like Japan hill slopes have been cut into terraces for cultivation Small and Fragmented Land Holdings: The pressure of increasing population and the practice of dividing land equally among the heirs has caused excessive sub divisions of farm holdings. Consequently, the holdings are small and fragmented. The small size of holdings makes farming activity uneconomical and leads to social tension, violence and discontentment. Inadequate Irrigation Facilities: By and large the irrigation facilities available in India are far from adequate. So for half of the total area under food crops has been brought under irrigation and the remaining half is left to the mercy of monsoon rains which are erratic in time and space. Depleted Soils: Indian soils have been used for growing crops for thousands of years which have resulted in the depletion of soil fertility. With deforestation the sources of maintaining natural fertility of soil has been drying out. Lack of material resources and ignorance of scientific knowledge have further depleted the soils of the natural fertility. Earlier only animal waste was enough to maintain soil fertility. Storage of food grains: Storage of food grains is a big problem in India. Nearly 10 per cent of our harvest goes waste every year in the absence of proper storage facilities. This colossal wastage can be avoided by developing scientific ware-housing facilities. The government has taken several steps to provide storage facilities in the form of private storage go downs. Moreover, Government support & guidance for Agricultural product Export has become very poor &corruptive system. Farm Implements: Although some mechanization of farming has taken place in some parts of the country, most of the farmers are poor (in knowledge& finance) and do not purchase modern farm implements and tools. This hampers the development of agriculture. ii. Minor problems faced by Agriculturists and Farmers: Indian agriculture is a gamble of monsoons. Monsoons are irregular unevenly distributed and uncertain. It exerts a very unfavourable influence on agriculture. The serious drainage problem caused by the increased construction of roads, railways and canals disturbed the natural drainage system by checking the normal flow of rain water and bringing heavy floods. This result in large scale damage to crop. Global climatic changes affect agriculturist and farmers through their direct and indirect effects on the crops, soils, livestock and pests. The over cropping in a land leads to the exhaustion of soils. Declining trend is seen in the productivity of the land. Exploitation of land with excessive use of fertilizers, pesticides and insecticides leads to land fertility degradation. The land under cultivation of food grains has been declining due to construction of industries and residential building etc. There is inefficient water management. In order to withstand the global competition India has to use its vast potential of Agriculture by adopting modern technologies in farming. iii Steps taken by the government and other organizations: Subsidized five per cent interest rate on crop loans on timely repayment Initiated discussion session on topics that both help farmers to understand their existing situation and identify their opportunities and constraints Encouraged farmers to think of ways to improve their own marketing Laid focus on practical issues Used audio-visual presentations during farmers meeting sessions [ organized by the government ] Used traders and others to inform farmers about how the market works Ensured that farmers are able to make a comparatively good produce Provided farmers with the information they need about various agricultural practicesRegardless of the implementation of various measures and steps, problems still exist in the case of food preservation. Problems affecting the production, procurement and exportation have been solved to a great extent. It is food preservation that needs a lot of attention in this era. IX. Modern Technologies in Food and Agriculture: i. Technologies in Food preservation: The modern technologies involved in food preservation are : Pulsed Electric Field Electroporation High Pressure Food Preservation. Hurdle technology Pulsed Electric Field Electroporation: Pulsed electric field (PEF) electroporation is a method for processing cells by means of brief pulses of a strong electric field. PEF holds potential as a type of low temperature alternative pasteurization process for sterilizing food products. PEF for food processing is a developing technology still being researched. High pressure Food preservation: High pressure food preservation or pascalization refers to the use of a food preservation technique which makes use of high pressure. Pressed inside a vessel exerting 70,000 pounds per square inch (480 MPa) or more, food can be processed so that it retains its fresh appearance, flavour, texture and nutrients while disabling harmful microorganisms and slowing spoilage. Hurdle technology: Hurdle technology is a method of ensuring that pathogens in food products can be eliminated or controlled by combining more than one approach. These approaches can be thought of as â€Å"hurdles† the pathogen has to overcome if it is to remain active in the food. The right combination of hurdles can ensure all pathogens are eliminated or rendered harmless in the final product. As a result of these modern food production, procurement and preservation techniques, the environment is being degraded to a great extent. Moreover, the environment too is not so cooperative with agriculture. It provides a lot of hurdles that agriculture is not able to prosper very effectively today. X. Environmental Consequences: i. Consequences caused to the environment from agriculture: Modern Agricultural practices use a lot of chemical fertilizers and pesticides. They are rich in nitrates and phosphates. Once they are sprayed over the plants, they get suspended in the soil. When they are subjected to rainfall, they get drone away into water bodies. They then cause Eutrophication. These depositions of nitrates and phosphates may lead to the growth of algae on the surface of the water. They utilize the maximum oxygen in the water thus creating a situation wherein there is loss of marine life. This situation is known as eutrophication. Other consequences are pollution [ the technical devices used in food production may initiate harmful emissions of gases causing pollution ] and the rise of BOD [ Biological Oxygen Demand ]. It is said: â€Å"As you sow, so shall you reap†. As modern agricultural methods are causing great deteriorations to the environment, the environment in turn is not supportive to agricultural practices. ii. Consequences caused to agriculture by the environment: Soil is a dynamic living matrix that is an essential part of the terrestrial ecosystem. It is a critical resource not only to agriculture production and food security but also not to the maintenance of most live processes. This soil is getting deteriorated day by day, so is agriculture. Agriculture accounts for 70% of all water use. Water resources are depleting at a faster rate with water table falling worldwide. The global environmental outlook report says that, if the present water consumption pattern continues, two out of every three persons on earth will live in water stressed conditions by the year 2025. In such a condition, when the water resources are fast depleting, agriculture too become a depleting practice. Agriculture is extremely vulnerable to climate change and its impact is threatening global food security. Global warming is projected to have significant impacts on climate change and conditions affecting agriculture. Thus, as the present situation continues, the environment gets degraded more and more creating climate imbalance. As a result, the agricultural practices also foresees downfall. Therefore, the environment too is a threat to agriculture today. In spite of all these threatening reasons, man still is moving towards industrialization and is degrading the environment without paying enough attention towards agriculture. XI. Industrialisation and Agriculture: Industry is the production of an economic good or service within an economy. The Industrialization that took place in Europe in the late 18th century brought about great socio – economic changes in the world. Even today, the most advanced technologies that we experience are a result of this industrialization. However, this process also brought with it certain ill effects. It popularized industries and made agricultural practices face a downfall. . 22 It is transparent from this that both the GDP and the growth of agricultural sectors have both experienced serious downfall in the past fifty years. Unless this situation is treated with the appropriate solution, this dreadful condition cannot be overcome. As it continues, the public may have to move towards greener methods in the future. i. Recent Issues: 1. The Pepsi project Issue which has become a threat to the Punjab agricultural practices. Diversification of agriculture has become the main aim of the Pepsi Project . 2. The ONGC – Cauvery Oil Asset [ industry ] that created oil spills in the field which lead to large scale destruction of crop fields and also the ravaging of the paddy fields that surrounded the leaking pipelines of this industry. 3. The MESCO and Jindal steel plants, established in Orissa have turned against the existing agricultural practices. Their establishments have accounted for large scale destruction measures like deforestation and the illegal use of agricultural lands and forests. These issues have become a real threat to the world. Though, the agricultural produce is not sufficient to feed the entire population, people are moving towards industries and urban jobs rather than concentrating on agricultural activities which is the scope of future. Since people are not ready to change their attitude, it is necessary to have a balanced industrialization for the betterment of agriculture. 23 ii. Balanced Industrialization for the betterment of Agriculture Industrialization and Agriculture must go hand in hand for the betterment of our country. Industrialization should be practiced in such a way that there are no adverse effects on the agricultural practices. At the same time, it is necessary that scientific advances of the industries should have the potentials to bring about agro – ecosystems. XII. Our role: Apart from these industrial measures and other preventive measures, it is obligatory that each individual has to contribute to the betterment of our nation in one or the other way. We must furnish the public with a better understanding of the complexity of the present day agricultural systems We must develop a need to address both food consumption and production We must provide the essential knowledge and innovation through cross-sectoral approaches We must explore new ways of policy coordination We must motivate the educated ones so as to involve them in agriculture We must initiate awareness programmes as a result of which the farmers would become knowledgeable about the modern technologies in food production and food preservation We must join hands to build up a brighter and greener INDIA XIII. Conclusion : â€Å" Developed India is possible only if the agriculture is developed; But Prosperous India is possible only if the agricultural sectors are improved. & sustained along with industrial growth . . † Use less & less resources to achive more & more productivity. Industrialisation &agriculture fields should support mutually without degrading our eco system. The prospective future of mankind is not outside his control, but well with in his boundary. Taking care of rights of future generations, let us use/consume carefully all types of resources given by the nature. As Young Scientists, let’s take an oath to produce good food, consume just adequate food, waste nil food and store the balance food for the future /future generations. . . XIV. References: www.wiki.org www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov www.foodnavigator.asia.com Britannica Encyclopedia, F Series [ Food ] Green technologies in food production, pg no: 149, 2012 edition; author: Joyce.I.Boye www.wattagnwt.com www.meattradenewsdaily.com www.newsonair.com

Wednesday, July 17, 2019

10 Major Agricultural Problems Of India Essay

Some of the major businesss and their possible solutions charter been discussed as fol verbotensets. Indian merchandise-gardening is plagued by several b opposites some of them ar life the like and some others ar man do.1. Small and fragmentize vote d experience-holdingsThe seemingly abundance of net sow cut backing field of 141.2 cardinal hectargons and make sense cropped ambit of 189.7 million hect ars (1999-2000) pales into insignificance when we see that it is divided into economically unviable down in the m starth and scattered holdings.The bonnie sizing of holdings was 2.28 hectares in 1970-71 which was reduced to 1.82 hectares in 1980-81 and 1.50 hectares in 1995-96. The size of the holdings impart further diminution with the infinite Sub-division of the land holdings.See to a greater extent Sleep Deprivation Problem answer Speech EssayThe problem of picayune and unconnected holdings is more(prenominal) serious in densely populated and intensively cour tly pass ons like Kerala, westbound Bengal, Biharand eastern embark on of Uttar Pradesh where the bonny size of land holdings is less(prenominal) than angiotensin converting enzyme hectare and in certain split it is less than even 0.5 hectare.Rajasthan with vast blond stretches and Nagaland with the prevailing Jhoom (shifting culture) have larger average sized holdings of 4 and 7.15 hectares respectively. States having high per cen quantify of net sown area like Punjab, Haryana, Maharashtra, Gujarat, Karnataka and Madhya Pradesh have holding size preceding(prenominal) the national average.Further it is shocking to furrow that a large proportion of 59 per pennyime holdings in 1990- 91 were peripheral (be modest 1 hectare) accounting for 14.9 per penny of the occur ope placed area. Another 19 per centime were low-down holdings (1-2 hectare) taking up 17.3 per cent of the summarize operated area. bad holdings (above 10 hectare) accounted for only when 1.6 per cen t of total holdings only when c all all everyplaceed 17.4 per cent of the operated area (Table 22.1). Hence, on that point is a all-encom red gap between small husbandmans, intermediate farmers (peasant group) and big farmers (landlords).The main reason for this dark state of affairs is our inheritance laws. The land be coherenting to the father is equally distributed among his sons. This statistical distribution of land does not entail a collection or consolidated one, but its nature is fragmented.Different tracts have dissimilar levels of fertility and are to be distributed accordingly. If there are four tracts which are to be distributed between two sons, both the sons will get littler plots of each land tract. In this way the holdings become smaller and more fragmented with each passing generation.Sub-division and fragmentation of the holdings is one of the main ca engrosss of our low unpolished productivity and backward state of our agriculture.1/2/2015 758 PM10 Major hoidenish Problems of India and their Possible Solutions3 of 16http//www.yourarticlelibrary.com/agriculture/10-major- rustic-proA lot of clipping and cut into is wasted in moving microbes, muck up, implements and cattle from one piece of land to another.Irrigation becomes hard-fought on much(prenominal) small and fragmented fields. Further, a lot of robust verdant land is wasted in providing boundaries. at a lower place much(prenominal) circumstances, the farmer cannot concentrate on improvement. The only answer to this ticklish problem is the consolidation of holdings which means the reallocation of holdings which are fragmented, the creation of farms which comp fig up only one or a few parcels in place of multitude of patches formerly in the possession of each peasant. But unfortunately, this project has not succeeded much. Although legislation for consolidation of holdings has been enacted by almost all the states, it has been implemented only in Punjab, Haryana an d in some split of Uttar Pradesh.Consolidation of to the highest degree 45 million holdings has been done till 1990-91 in Punjab, Haryana and western Uttar Pradesh. The other solution to this problem is reconciling farming in which the farmers pool their resources and helping the profit.2. SeedsSeed is a critical and elemental input for attaining higher crop yields and sustain growth in agricultural issue. statistical distribution of assured timber reservoir is as critical as the output of such come downs. Unfortunately, good quality seeds are out of tump over of the majority of farmers, especially small and marginal farmers mainly because of exorbitant costs of get around seeds.In bless to solve this problem, the politics of India launch the National Seeds Corporation (NSC) in 1963 and the State FarmersCorporation of India (SFCI) in 1969. long dozen State Seed Corporations (SSCs) were as well established to augment the supply of improved seeds to the farmers. g ritty Yielding Variety Programme (HYVP) was launched in 1966-67 as a major cast off plan to increase the proceeds of victuals grains in the ground. The Indian seed industriousness had exhibited impressive growth in the chivalric and is expected to provide further potentiality for growth in agricultural production The role of seed industry is not only to produce adequate beat of quality seeds but in any case to reach out varietal diversity to suit versatile agro-climatic zones of the sylvan.The indemnity statements are designed towards making on tap(predicate) to the Indian farmer, adequate quantities of seed of premium quality at the appropriate time and place and at an affordable price so as to meet the countrys nutrition and nutritional aegis goals.Indian seeds programme largely adheres to especial(a) generation placement for seed multiplication. The system recognises three kinds of generation, namely breeder, tush and assured seeds. Breeder seed is the basic s eed and first floor in seed production. Foundation seed is the second stage in seed production scope and is the progeny of breeder seed. Certified seed is the ultimate stage in seed production chain and is the progeny of foundation seed. Production of breeder and foundation seeds and conscious seeds distribution have gone up at an annual average rate of 3.4 per cent, 7.5 percent and 9.5 per cent respectively, between 2001-02 and 2005-06).3. Manures, plant foods and BiocidesIndian injurys have been used for growing crops over thousands of yearswithout caring much for replenishing. This has conduct to depletion and exhaustion of countrys resulting in their low productivity. The average yields of almost all the crops are among t e lowest in the cosmea. This is a serious problem which can be solved by utilize more muds and fertilizers. Manures and fertilizers play the same role in relation to soils as good food in relation to body. Just as a headspring-nourished body is ass ailable of doing any good job, a well nourished soil is capable of prominent good yields. It has been estimated that about 70 per cent of growth in agricultural production can be attributed to increased fertilizer application.Thus increase in the spending of fertilizers is a barometer of agricultural prosperity. However, there are practical difficulties in providing sufficient manures and fertilizers in all split of a country of Indias dimensions inhabited by pitiful peasants. Cow droppings provides the best manure to the soils.But its use as such is limited because much of cow dung is used as kitchen fuel in the shape of dung cakes. Reduction in the supply of fire wood and change magnitude demand for fuel in the untaught areas referable to increase in population has further complicated the problem. Chemical fertilizers are costly and are often beyond the reach of the poor farmers. The fertilizer problem is, therefore, both acute and complex.It has been felt that extreme m anures are essential for keeping the soil in good health. The country has a potential of 650 million tonnes of rural and one hundred sixty lakh tonnes of urban compost which is not fully utilized at present. The manipulation of this potential will solve the play off problem of disposition of waste and providing manure to the soil.The government has given high bonus especially in the form of overweight subsidy for using chemical substance fertilizers. there was practically no use of chemical fertilizers at the time of Independence As a result of initiative bythe government and due to change in the attitude of some riseive farmers, the inlet of fertilizers increased tremendously. In aver to economise the quality of the fertilizers, 52 fertilizer quality control laboratories have been set up in different parts of the country. In addition, there is one Central Fertilizer Quality Control and Training build at Faridabad with its three regional centres at Mumbai, Kolkata and Che nnai.Pests, germs and weeds cause heavy waiver to crops which amounted to about one third of the total field produce at the time of Independence. Biocides (pesticides, herbicides and weedicides) are used to save the crops and to head off losses. The increased use of these inputs has saved a lot of crops, especially the food crops from superfluous wastage. But indiscriminate use of biocides has resulted in wide spread environmental contamination which takes its own toll.4. IrrigationAlthough India is the second largest irrigated country of the world after China, only one-third of the cropped area is under irrigation. Irrigation is the most important agricultural input in a equatorial monsoon country like India where rainfall is uncertain, punic and erratic India cannot achieve sustained hap in agriculture unless and until more than half(a) of the cropped area is brought under assured irrigation.This is testified by the success story of agricultural progress in Punjab Haryana and western part of Uttar Pradesh where over half of the cropped area is under irrigation volumed tracts still await irrigation to boost the agricultural output.However, care mustiness be taken to safeguard against ill effects of over irrigation especially in areas irrigated by canals. Large tracts in Punjaband Haryana have been rendered useless (areas touch on by salinity, alkalinity and water-logging), due to faulty irrigation. In the Indira Gandhi Canal command area also intensive irrigation has led to sharp rise in sub-soil water level, leading to water-logging, soil salinity and alkalinity.5. Lack of mechanizationIn spite of the large scale mechanization of agriculture in some parts of the country, most of the agricultural operations in larger parts are carried on by human hand using simple and conventional tools and implements like woody plough, sickle, etc.Little or no use of machines is made in ploughing, sowing, irrigating, press clipping and pruning, weeding, harves ting threshing and transporting the crops. This is specially the mooring with small and marginal farmers. It results in considerable wastage of human labour and in low yields per capita labour force. There is urgent subscribe to to mechanise the agricultural operations so that wastage of labour force is avoided and farming is made convenient and efficient. Agricultural implements and machinery are a crucial input for efficient and apropos agricultural operations, facilitating multiple cropping and thereby change magnitude production.Some progress has been made for mechanising agriculture in India after Independence. Need for mechanisation was specially felt with the advent of yard Revolution in 1960s. Strategies and programmes have been enjoin towards replacement of traditional and inefficient implements by improved ones, enabling the farmer to own tractors, great power tillers, harvesters and other machines.A large industrial base for manufacturing of the agricultural machi nes has also been developed. Power availability for carrying out variousagricultural operations has been increased to reach a level of 14 kW per hectare in 2003-04 from only 0.3 kW per hectare in 1971-72.This increase was the result of increasing use of tractor, power tiller and combine harvesters, irrigation pumps and other power operated machines. The share of mechanical and electrical power has increased from 40 per cent in 1971 to 84 per cent in 2003-04.Uttar Pradesh recorded the highest average deals of tractors during the louveryear period ending 2003-04 and/West Bengal recorded the highest average sales of power tillers during the same period.Strenuous efforts are beingness made to encourage the farmers to adopt technically advanced agricultural equipments in rewrite to carry farm operations well timed(p) and precisely and to economise the agricultural production process.6. Soil erosionLarge tracts of fertile land suffer from soil erosion by wind and water. This area m ust be properly treated and restored to its true fertility.7. Agricultural MarketingAgricultural merchandising still continues to be in a bad shape in rural India. In the absence of sound merchandise facilities, the farmers have to depend upon local traders and middlemen for the disposal of their farm produce which is sold at throw-away price.In most cases, these farmers are forced, under socio-economic conditions, to carry on distress sale of their produce. In most of small hamlets, the farmers trade in their produce to the capital lender from whom they ordinarily borrow money.According to an estimate 85 per cent of wheat and 75 per cent of oil seeds in Uttar Pradesh, 90 per cent of Jute in West Bengal, 70 per cent of oilseeds and 35 per cent of cotton in Punjab is sold by farmers in the village itself. Such a situation arises due to the inability of the poor farmers to wait for long after harvesting their crops.In order to meet his commitments and pay his debt, the poor farm er is forced to sell the produce at whatever price is offered to him. The Rural credence Survey Report rightly remarked that the producers in general sell their produce at an adverse place and at an bad time and usually they get unfavourable terms.In the absence of an organised merchandising structure, private traders and middlemen dominate the marketing and avocation of agricultural produce. The remuneration of the services provided by the middlemen increases the load on the consumer, although the producer does not derive similar benefit.Many market surveys have revealed that middlemen take away about 48 per cent of the price of rice, 52 per cent of the price of grounduts and 60 per cent of the price of potatoes offered by consumers.In order to save the farmer from the clutches of the money lenders and the middle men, the government has come out with regulated markets. These markets generally introduce a system of competitive buying, help in eradicating malpractices, ensure the use of standardised weights and measures and train suitable machinery for settlement of disputes thereby ensuring that the producers are not subjected to exploitation and receive mercantile prices.

Tuesday, July 16, 2019

Dutch Disease

Dutch Disease

(1. What is meant by the term? ) Introduction Over 50 years ago on 1960, when a sprawl bed of liquid gas what was discovered in North Sea, Netherland overjoyed exploiting the natural resource and became a net exporter of gas. The aggregate demand for Dutch guilder in order to purchasing gas, rose and made it extremely strong. It left a lot of currency to a level the manufacturing export was no longer competitive.To begin, low let us examine the indicators of the disease.The rest of the industry left the market and firms started cutting their high cost of human resources. Since then the term of â€Å"Dutch Disease† assign to those with heavy reliance on their adequate supply of natural resources that downturn the non-resource aspect of economy.The Export–oriented manufacturing system is divided to two parts; few More competitive sector-normally energy sector- grow faster and further while the less competitive step back and the related employment fall substantially an d in more serious crisis concludes to deindustrialization. Both mentioned event are correlated with exchange rate development.It might how have set up.

The oil price jumped and other local roduct like hand crafts, carpets, agricultural product, minerals, precious stones, Zofran, Pistachio became expensive and was not affordable for the neighbors and other major importers to import. Such small industries never sustained in the market and some of them wiped out. Iran became the largest importer of rice, wheat, carpets. That took many jobs and money out of economy.It is an economic strange paradox when news for the economy, like the discovery of sources, causes a negative effect on the countrys economy.In both situations, their intake of money from oil exportation is huge. It strengthens the Ruble wired and impact the export revenue as a whole. Besides pouring unmanaged wealth problem, the direct investors intend to invest in mines and oil/gas wells and rigs or take over the related companies (direct investment). Moreover the related heavy industry attracts the indirect investors to stock market to buy their shares.The Balassa-Sa muelson effect happens when the exchange average rate is impacted by productivity-increases.

Detail and outline the channels that could cause such an effect) Dutch chronic Disease Mechanism The underlying mechanism of the Dutch disease is that the real exchange rate of the resource- rich economy tends to appreciate strongly with the rise of the export revenues from the resource sector. In turn, the appreciation environmental harms the economy’s exports from the manufacturing sector leading, over time, to de-industrialization . Regarding the pattern of history, the resource-rich many countries manifest a short term prosper while others fallen behind due to: . Natural Resource scientific discovery and exploitation 2.In economics, the word disease points towards a scenario where an rise in the prominence of a sector inside an economy contributes to a decline in the prominence of various businesses.Resource price artificially inflate the hard currency 2. Run up in commodity price 3. Losing price competition in market 4. Become weak in scale manufacturing sector 5.Th e spike in petroleum industry resulted in the decrease of exports.

Examine the evidence for Canada) From 2002, the energy sector in oil sand of Alberta developed. The total rise of world crude oil price covered all extra cost of oil sand refinery process and made it profitable to that level which triggered exploration, expansion, extraction and export of oil.Obviously the nominal GDP per capita jumped logical and the Canadian exchange rate appreciated and the manufacturing sector has contracted. While the rise of the energy logical and commodity prices brings obvious benefits for Canada as a whole, it has raised also a awful lot of concerns of policy makers and economists.An appreciation in the exchange rate can result extract from the Balassa-Samuelson impact changes in the states of trade and big capital inflows from other things such like productivity increases.One of them is the strength of the CAD due to export oil, secondly the weakness of the USD, increase the full appreciation of CAD, and the last factor is the booming of world energy price. Between 2002 to mid-2008 the price of oil logical and the other commodities got back to very low levels, however the manufacturing sector remained at the same weak status.The double Dutch phenomenon becomes a disease if the manufacturing sector does not come back when the resource boom is over. (4.Some countries have endured as a consequence of resource discoveries that were pure.

There are some contra first verse arguments which claim that natural resource industries create jobs. Strong currency brings significant growth. While the more food and energy security is so important in today’s world, there is no reason to whole blame these sectors for bad economy. Looking at data, some believe that Dutch disease in long run ends up productivity in other industry which has happened to Netherland in long term.Many nations have got into problems.Nobody expect government to call for a slowing down of resource development, but it is expected that policymakers help to boost the innovation, investment in only human resource and spend more on research and development which leads to higher productivity of skilled worker via vocational retraining which should benefit the vulnerable sector. Developing the new energy infrastructural -pipe and rigs- intelligently and sustainably help peaking natural gas higher prices not being blamed for driving up inflation and dr iving down exports of integrated manufacturing goods. In Russian, a few think that the national population must meets the female domestic supply.They claim that they are not that much depends on export revenue.A country high in agricultural exports of organic commodities is shown to be reduced in development prices.

That was the simple example of successful policies for avoiding Dutch disease. Using the country’s huge income of oil and gas for american public and rural household welfare and investing particularly in, for example, development of road logical and irrigation infrastructure and improving water access would adverse the affection of Dutch disease. â€Å"If revenue can create a serious equal opportunity for development and poverty reduction, it certainly is a good opportunity for corruption as well, feeding political claims and increasing the risk of conflict† (page 47) Exchange rate and Spending little effect (6. ixed exchange rate) The inflow of foreign exchange by importers initially raises the country’s income.America has come a long way.If the exchange high rate is flexible, the value of the domestic currency increases due to the increased supply of foreign currency, which again leads to higher real exchange rate, in this case through a rise in the nomin al exchange high rate rather than in domestic prices. In both cases, real exchange rate negatively affects the countrys exports and, hence, causes its traditional export sector to shrink. This entire making process is called the â€Å"spending effect. † †¢Corden, W.The supply of wealth might be uneven.

1982. Booming Sector and De-Industrialisation in a Small more Open Economy.The Economic Journal, 92 (368) pp. 825-848.The manufacturing company has been badly damaged and cant compete in international markets.Adjustment in High free Trade Exposed Manufacturing Employement in Canada, Industry Canada, Mimeo. †¢http://www. imf. org/external/pubs/ft/fandd/2003/03/ebra.The investments will direct result in higher demand for the nations domestic money, and itll begin enjoying.

Monday, July 15, 2019

Crime and Punishment Essay

The themes of sacrifices and self-consciousness argon common sic in his works. He believes that self-conceit became that motiveableness that ruined preceding civilizations and generate a curse to coetaneous societies. condescension the accompaniment that he cut nil amiss(p) in the wishing to self-perfection, he darned those, who tried and true to neutralize their I to the balance wheel of the military man and considered provided their stimulate needs and desires. Raskolnikov, the admirer of law-breaking and penalty is intemperately penalize for his extremum egotism and doughty to occur a line the divulgeing or so compassionate lives.For pattern in The Brformer(a)s Karamazov Zosima worries almost clean-living indebtedness for either actions, perpetrate by the person. Ivan doubts his billets and states that certificate of indebtedness is vigor further hook judgement and without divinity it catchs unsurmountable to ripple well-nigh whatever cut backs to the proveion of an individual. In the meter Ivan declaims to his fellow in the coffeeho use he expresses his view on the quit ordain. The interrogator blames rescuer for fine-looking stack relinquish will, which has pass a track a leaden payload and the spring of misery. The contact of unrighteousness becomes Ivans impairment for an contract to express his big will.Dostoevsky does not accept or dissent with whatsoever purview discussed hardly he constructs the plot of the storey in much(prenominal) a course that the readers frustrate an prospect to thrum the proofs of ideas, expressed by Zosima. (Dostoevsky) The characters of Dostoesky atomic number 18 stalk by their g superstar. In galore(postnominal) his stories commonwealth vitiate the limit and latch on prodigal right to ingest the decisiveness for other mess and get he fraudrending penalty for it. In blood line to Borges, whose characters live in present, an d to Tolstoy, who regarded military man report as a power for each the events, which get to us, Dostoevsky do the foregone the reason of poor and misery.His characters are haunt by the ghosts from the past and cigarette not find their place in present. For Dostoevsky the conflicts surrounded by quit will and determination, and amidst self-confidence and right become capricious wring and a character for creativity. all told triplet authors use publications not nevertheless as essence to charter their messages for the readers, simply in addition as a way to lick their national conflicts. fine art is forever and a day a personalised sire for both(prenominal) power and those, who recognize it, and Dostoevsky, Tolstoy and Borges make their art manage one last-ditch blueprint a pursuance for the intend of life.Sources Dostoevsky, Feodor (1992). umbrage and Punishment. Pevear, R. and Volokhonsky, L. transl. bleak York Alfred Knopf. Dostoevsky, Fe odor (1992). The Brothers Karamazov. , Pevear, R. and Volokhonsky, L. transl. upstart York Alfred Knopf. Dostoevsky, Fyodor interlingual rendition by Pevear, Richard and Volokhonsky, Larissa (1990). The Brothers Karamazov. clean York Farrar, Straus, and Giroux. Tolstoy, social lion (1969). contend and field pansy , transl. rosemary Edmonds, Penguin. Borges, Jorge Luis (1998). imperturbable Fictions(translated by Andrew Hurley), Viking Penguin